Assessment of brain activity during memory encoding in a narcolepsy patient on and off modafinil using normative fMRI data
ABSTRACT We present behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings of a 20-year-old female with narcolepsy who completed a standardized fMRI-adapted face memory task both 'off' and 'on' modafinil compared to a normative sample (N = 38). The patient showed poor recognition performance off modafinil (z = -2.03) but intact performance on modafinil (z = 0.78). fMRI results showed atypical activation during memory encoding off modafinil, with frontal lobe hypoactivity, but hippocampal hyperactivity, whereas all brain regions showed more normalized activation on modafinil. Results from this limited study suggest hippocampal and frontal alterations in individuals with narcolepsy. Further, the results suggest the hypothesis that modafinil may affect brain activation in some people with narcolepsy.
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ABSTRACT: This work aims at reviewing the present state of the art when it comes to understanding the pathophysiology of narcolepsy and the Kleine–Levin syndrome (KLS) from a neuroimaging point of view.This work also aims at discussing future perspectives of functional neuroimag-ing in these sleep disorders. We focus on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), which is a technique for in vivo measurements of brain activation in neuronal circuitries under healthy and pathological conditions. fMRI has significantly increased the knowledge on the affected neuronal circuitries in narcolepsy and the Kleine–Levin syndrome. It has been shown that narcolepsy is accompanied with disturbances of the emotional and the closely related reward systems. In the Kleine Levin syndrome, fMRI has identified hyper-activation of the thalamus as a potential biomarker that could be used in the diagnostic procedure. The fMRI findings in both narcolepsy and the Kleine–Levin syndrome are in line with previous structural and functional imaging studies. We conclude that fMRI in combi-nation with multi-modal imaging can reveal important details about the pathophysiology in narcolepsy and the Kleine–Levin syndrome. In the future, fMRI possibly gives opportunities for diagnostic support and prediction of treatment response in individual patients.Frontiers in Neurology 06/2014; 5. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2014.00105