Effectiveness of pandemic H1N1 vaccine against influenza-related hospitalization in children.
ABSTRACT Young children are generally considered immunologically naive with respect to influenza exposure opportunities; thus, a 2-dose schedule is recommended when a child is first immunized with conventional influenza vaccine lacking adjuvant. We estimated the effectiveness of a single pediatric dose of AS03-adjuvanted vaccine against hospitalization for confirmed pandemic influenza A/H1N1 (pH1N1) infection in children aged 6 months to 9 years during the fall 2009 vaccination campaign.
In a matched case-control design, case subjects were children hospitalized for pH1N1 infection in the Fall of 2009, in Quebec, Canada. Controls were nonhospitalized children, matched by age and region of residence. Vaccination status in case subjects and controls was ascertained in relation to the case subject's date of illness onset. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated through conditional logistic regression.
The overall effectiveness of a single pediatric dose of vaccine administered ≥14 days before illness onset was 85% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 61% to 94%), varying according to age category but with wide and overlapping CIs: 92% (95% CI: 51% to 99%) in 6-23 month-old children, 89% (95% CI: 34% to 98%) in 2-4 year-olds, and 79% (95% CI: -31% to 96%) in 5-9 year-olds. Overall vaccine effectiveness for immunization ≥10 days before illness onset was slightly lower at 80% (95% CI: 60% to 90%), with similar variation according to age.
In children aged 6 months to 9 years, a single pediatric dose of the AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 vaccine was highly protective against hospitalization beginning at 10 and 14 days after vaccination.
- SourceAvailable from: Zhiwei Xu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Climate change is affecting and will increasingly influence human health and wellbeing. Children are particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. An extensive literature review regarding the impact of climate change on children's health was conducted in April 2012 by searching electronic databases PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, as well as relevant websites, such as IPCC and WHO. Climate change affects children's health through increased air pollution, more weather-related disasters, more frequent and intense heat waves, decreased water quality and quantity, food shortage and greater exposure to toxicants. As a result, children experience greater risk of mental disorders, malnutrition, infectious diseases, allergic diseases and respiratory diseases. Mitigation measures like reducing carbon pollution emissions, and adaptation measures such as early warning systems and post-disaster counseling are strongly needed. Future health research directions should focus on: (1) identifying whether climate change impacts on children will be modified by gender, age and socioeconomic status; (2) refining outcome measures of children's vulnerability to climate change; (3) projecting children's disease burden under climate change scenarios; (4) exploring children's disease burden related to climate change in low-income countries; and (5) identifying the most cost-effective mitigation and adaptation actions from a children's health perspective.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2012; 9(9):3298-316. · 2.00 Impact Factor