Catabolism of dimethylsulphoniopropionate: microorganisms, enzymes and genes.
ABSTRACT The compatible solute dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) has important roles in marine environments. It is an anti-stress compound made by many single-celled plankton, some seaweeds and a few land plants that live by the shore. Furthermore, in the oceans it is a major source of carbon and sulphur for marine bacteria that break it down to products such as dimethyl sulphide, which are important in their own right and have wide-ranging effects, from altering animal behaviour to seeding cloud formation. In this Review, we describe how recent genetic and genomic work on the ways in which several different bacteria, and some fungi, catabolize DMSP has provided new and surprising insights into the mechanisms, regulation and possible evolution of DMSP catabolism in microorganisms.
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ABSTRACT: Seawater concentrations of the climate-cooling, volatile sulphur compound dimethylsulphide (DMS) are the result of numerous production and consumption processes within the marine ecosystem. Due to this complex nature, it is difficult to predict temporal and geographical distribution patterns of DMS concentrations and the inclusion of DMS into global ocean climate models has only been attempted recently. Comparisons between individual model predictions, and ground-truthing exercises revealed that information on the functional relationships between physical and chemical ecosystem parameters, biological productivity and the production and consumption of DMS and its precursor dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) is necessary to further refine future climate models. In this review an attempt is made to quantify these functional relationships. The description of processes includes: (1) parameters controlling DMSP production such as species composition and abiotic factors; (2) the conversion of DMSP to DMS by algal and bacterial enzymes; (3) the fate of DMSP-sulphur due to, e.g., grazing, microbial consumption and sedimentation and (4) factors controlling DMS removal from the water column such as microbial consumption, photo-oxidation and emission to the atmosphere. We recommend the differentiation of six phytoplankton groups for inclusion in future models: eukaryotic and prokaryotic picoplankton, diatoms, dinoflagellates, and other phytoflagellates with and without DMSP-lyase activity. These functional groups are characterised by their cell size, DMSP content, DMSP-lyase activity and interactions with herbivorous grazers. In this review, emphasis is given to ecosystems dominated by the globally relevant haptophytes Emiliania huxleyi and Phaeocystis sp., which are important DMS and DMSP producers.Biogeochemistry 83(1):245-275. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ALL models of natural processes for the transfer of sulphur on a global scale1–4 require some volatile or gaseous sulphur compound to complete the cycle by providing a vehicle for the transfer of sulphur from the sea through the air to the land surfaces. In the past, this role has been assigned to H2S and an average atmospheric concentration of 2×10−10 by volume satisfied the mass transfer needs of the models. Attempts to detect the presence of these concentrations of H2S have always failed and, more important, the ocean surface waters are much too oxidizing to permit the existence of H2S at concentrations sufficient to sustain an atmospheric equilibrium concentration of 2×10−10 by volume. Many elements form volatile methyl derivatives; Challenger5 reported that many living systems produced dimethyl sulphide (DMS), and that prominent among them were marine algae. Here we suggest that DMS is the natural sulphur compound which fills the role originally assigned to H2S; that of transferring sulphur from the seas through the air to land surfaces.06/1972; 237(5356):452-453.
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ABSTRACT: The volatiles released by Phaeobacter gallaeciensis, Oceanibulbus indolifex and Dinoroseobacter shibae have been investigated by GC-MS, and several MeSH-derived sulfur volatiles have been identified. An important sulfur source in the oceans is the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). Labelled [2H6]DMSP was fed to the bacteria to investigate the production of volatiles from this compound through the lysis pathway to [2H6]dimethylsulfide or the demethylation pathway to [2H3]-3-(methylmercapto)propionic acid and lysis to [2H3]MeSH. [2H6]DMSP was efficiently converted to [2H3]MeSH by all three species. Several DMSP derivatives were synthesised and used in feeding experiments. Strong dealkylation activity was observed for the methylated ethyl methyl sulfoniopropionate and dimethylseleniopropionate, as indicated by the formation of EtSH- and MeSeH-derived volatiles, whereas no volatiles were formed from dimethyltelluriopropionate. In contrast, the dealkylation activity for diethylsulfoniopropionate was strongly reduced, resulting in only small amounts of EtSH-derived volatiles accompanied by diethyl sulfide in P. gallaeciensis and O. indolifex, while D. shibae produced the related oxidation product diethyl sulfone. The formation of diethyl sulfide and diethyl sulfone requires the lysis pathway, which is not active for [2H6]DMSP. These observations can be explained by a shifted distribution between the two competing pathways due to a blocked dealkylation of ethylated substrates.ChemBioChem 02/2010; 11(3):417-25. · 3.74 Impact Factor