Reduction of Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Children and Adolescents

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, The Children's Hospital, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
Circulation (Impact Factor: 14.95). 10/2011; 124(15):1673-86. DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.016170
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Key points  Sedentary and high-fat diet lifestyles are associated with greater prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans, both of which independently increase atherosclerosis.  High-fat diet in sedentary individuals produces endothelial dysfunction in blood vessels as a first step toward coronary arteriosclerosis.  We observed preservation of coronary arteriolar vascular function when mice began voluntary running in wheels at the start of a high-fat diet.  We further showed that mechanisms by which running opposed the detrimental effects of high-fat diet on vascular function included maintenance of eNOS phosphorylation, leptin sensitivity, and redox balance in mouse coronary arterioles.  The results provide evidence for how physical activity is an effective therapy to oppose the development of atherosclerosis in the first place.
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood obesity has become major health concern for physicians, parents, and health agencies around the world. Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for other diseases not only during youth but also later in life, including diabetes, arterial hypertension, coronary artery disease, and fatty liver disease. Importantly, obesity accelerates atherosclerosis progression already in children and young adults. With regard to pathophysiological changes in the vasculature, the striking similarities between physiological changes related to aging and obesity-related abnormalities are compatible with the concept that obesity causes "premature" vascular aging. This article reviews factors underlying the accelerated vascular disease development due to obesity. It also highlights the importance of recognizing childhood obesity as a disease condition and its permissive role in aggravating the development of other diseases. The importance of childhood obesity for disease susceptibility later in life, and the need for prevention and treatment are also discussed.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 02/2012; 33(2):189-93. DOI:10.1038/aps.2011.204 · 2.50 Impact Factor