Epidemiology of injuries requiring surgery among high school athletes in the United States, 2005 to 2010.

Center for Injury Research and Policy, The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, and Division of Epidemiology, The Ohio State University, College of Public Health, Columbus, Ohio 43205, USA.
The Journal of trauma (Impact Factor: 2.35). 10/2011; 71(4):982-9. DOI: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318230e716
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The proportion of high school sports-related injuries requiring surgery, which pose monetary and time loss burdens, has significantly increased during the last decade. The objective was to investigate the epidemiology of high school athletic injuries requiring surgery.
High school sports-related injury data were collected for nine sports from 2005 to 2010 from 100 nationally representative US high schools.
Athletes sustained 1,380 injuries requiring surgery for a rate of 1.45 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Boys' football had the highest injury rate (2.52) followed by boys' wrestling (1.64). Among gender comparable sports, girls' sports has a higher injury rate (1.20) than boys' (0.94) (rate ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.51; p=0.004). The rate of injuries was higher in competition (3.23) than practice (0.79) (rate ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 3.67-4.55; p<0.001) overall and in each sport. Commonly injured body sites were the knee (49.4%), head/face/mouth (9.7%), and shoulder (8.7%). Common diagnoses were complete ligament strain (32.1%) and fracture (26.4%). Nearly half (48.0%) resulted in medical disqualification for the season.
Rates and patterns of injuries requiring surgery differ by sport, type of exposure, and gender. Future studies should identify sport-specific risk factors to drive effective interventions to decrease the incidence and severity of such injuries.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Soccer continues to gain popularity among youth athletes, and increased numbers of children playing soccer can be expected to result in increased injuries. Objective We reviewed children with soccer injuries severe enough to require trauma activation at our Level I trauma center to determine injury patterns and outcome. Our goal is to raise awareness of the potential for injury in youth soccer. Methods A retrospective review was performed using the trauma registry and electronic medical records at a Level I trauma center to identify children (< 18 years old) treated for soccer injury from 1999–2009. Data reviewed include age, gender, mechanism, injury, procedures, and outcome. Results Eighty-one children treated for soccer injury were identified; 38 (47%) were male. Of these, 20 had injury severe enough to require trauma team activation and 61 had minor injury. Mean age was 14 years old (range 5–17 years, SD 2.3). Lower extremity was the most common site of injury (57%), followed by upper extremity (17%), head (16%), and torso (10%). Mechanisms were: kicked or kneed in 27 patients (33%), collision with another player in 25 (31%), fall in 18 (22%), struck by ball in 10 (12%), and unknown in 1 (1%). Procedures included reduction of fractures, splenectomy, abdominal abscess drainage, and surgical feeding access. Long hospitalizations were recorded in some cases. There were no deaths. Conclusion Although less common, injury requiring prolonged hospital admission and invasive operative procedures exist in the expanding world of youth soccer. With increasing participation in the sport, we anticipate greater numbers of these child athletes presenting with serious injury.
    Journal of Emergency Medicine 05/2014; · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The increased participation of children and adolescents in organized sports worldwide is a welcome trend given evidence of lower physical fitness and increased prevalence of overweight in this population. However, the increased sports activity of children from an early age and continued through the years of growth, against a background of their unique vulnerability to injury, gives rise to concern about the risk and severity of injury. Three types of injury-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, concussion, and physeal injury - are considered potentially serious given their frequency, potential for adverse long-term health outcomes, and escalating healthcare costs. Concussion is probably the hottest topic in sports injury currently with voracious media coverage and exploding research interest. Given the negative cognitive effects of concussion, it has the potential to have a great impact on children and adolescents during their formative years and potentially impair school achievement and, if concussion management is not managed appropriately, there can be long term negative impact on cognitive development and ability to resume sports participation. Sudden and gradual onset physeal injury is a unique injury to the pediatric population which can adversely affect growth if not managed correctly. Although data are lacking, the frequency of stress-related physeal injury appears to be increasing. If mismanaged, physeal injuries can also lead to long-term complications which could negatively affect ability to participate in sports. Management of ACL injuries is an area of controversy and if not managed appropriately, can affect long-term growth and recovery as well as the ability to participate in sports. This article considers the young athlete's vulnerability to injury, with special reference to ACL injury, concussion, and physeal injury, and reviews current research on epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these injury types. This article is intended as an overview of these injury types for medical students, healthcare professionals and researchers.
    BMC sports science, medicine and rehabilitation. 01/2014; 6:22.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dynamic balance is an important component of motor skill development. Poor dynamic balance has previously been associated with sport related injury. However, the vast majority of dynamic balance studies as they relate to sport injury have occurred in developed North American or European countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare dynamic balance in adolescent male soccer players from Rwanda to a matched group from the United States. Twenty-six adolescent male soccer players from Rwanda and 26 age- and gender-matched control subjects from the United States were screened using the Lower Quarter Y Balance Test during their pre-participation physical. Reach asymmetry (cm) between limbs was examined for all reach directions. In addition, reach distance in each direction (normalized to limb length, %LL) and the composite reach score (also normalized to %LL) were examined. Dependent samples t-tests were performed with significant differences identified at p<0.05. Twenty-six male soccer players from Rwanda (R) were matched to twenty-six male soccer players from the United States (US). The Rwandan soccer players performed better in the anterior (R: 83.9 ± 3.2 %LL; US: 76.5 ± 6.6 %LL, p<0.01), posterolateral (R: 114.4 ± 8.3 %LL ; US: 106.5 ± 8.2 %LL, p<0.01) and composite (R: 105.6 ± 1.3 %LL; US: 97.8 ± 6.2 %LL, p<0.01) reach scores. No significant differences between groups were observed for reach asymmetry. Adolescent soccer players from Rwanda exhibit superior performance on a standardized dynamic balance test as comparison to similar athletes from the United States. The examination of movement abilities of athletes from countries of various origins may allow for a greater understanding of the range of true normative values for dynamic balance. 3b.
    International journal of sports physical therapy. 12/2013; 8(6):749-55.