Epidemiology of Injuries Requiring Surgery Among High School Athletes in the United States, 2005 to 2010
ABSTRACT The proportion of high school sports-related injuries requiring surgery, which pose monetary and time loss burdens, has significantly increased during the last decade. The objective was to investigate the epidemiology of high school athletic injuries requiring surgery.
High school sports-related injury data were collected for nine sports from 2005 to 2010 from 100 nationally representative US high schools.
Athletes sustained 1,380 injuries requiring surgery for a rate of 1.45 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Boys' football had the highest injury rate (2.52) followed by boys' wrestling (1.64). Among gender comparable sports, girls' sports has a higher injury rate (1.20) than boys' (0.94) (rate ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.51; p=0.004). The rate of injuries was higher in competition (3.23) than practice (0.79) (rate ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 3.67-4.55; p<0.001) overall and in each sport. Commonly injured body sites were the knee (49.4%), head/face/mouth (9.7%), and shoulder (8.7%). Common diagnoses were complete ligament strain (32.1%) and fracture (26.4%). Nearly half (48.0%) resulted in medical disqualification for the season.
Rates and patterns of injuries requiring surgery differ by sport, type of exposure, and gender. Future studies should identify sport-specific risk factors to drive effective interventions to decrease the incidence and severity of such injuries.
- SourceAvailable from: Nicola Maffulli
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ABSTRACT: The The kinematic interrelationships between the lower limbs, pelvis, trunk, and racquet in the performance of the high velocity tennis serve were investigated for 10 participants using a 12 camera opto-reflective Vicon MX system, operating at 250Hz. The average absolute peak racquet centre velocity was 34.0m∙s-1, which is comparable to previous studies using high performance players. Peak vertical linear velocity of the right shoulder was highly correlated with this maximum pre-impact racquet resultant velocity (MRV: r = 0.808, p < .001), yet horizontal velocity of the same shoulder shared no relationship with MRV. The vertical drive of the hitting shoulder was strongly associated with drive from both trunk and lower limbs, in particular on the hitting side. The results highlighted the importance of creating a large upward drive of the hitting shoulder in the high performance tennis serve with contributions from both the trunk and the lower limbs playing key roles.