Epidemiology of Injuries Requiring Surgery Among High School Athletes in the United States, 2005 to 2010
ABSTRACT The proportion of high school sports-related injuries requiring surgery, which pose monetary and time loss burdens, has significantly increased during the last decade. The objective was to investigate the epidemiology of high school athletic injuries requiring surgery.
High school sports-related injury data were collected for nine sports from 2005 to 2010 from 100 nationally representative US high schools.
Athletes sustained 1,380 injuries requiring surgery for a rate of 1.45 injuries per 10,000 athlete exposures. Boys' football had the highest injury rate (2.52) followed by boys' wrestling (1.64). Among gender comparable sports, girls' sports has a higher injury rate (1.20) than boys' (0.94) (rate ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.51; p=0.004). The rate of injuries was higher in competition (3.23) than practice (0.79) (rate ratio, 4.08; 95% confidence interval, 3.67-4.55; p<0.001) overall and in each sport. Commonly injured body sites were the knee (49.4%), head/face/mouth (9.7%), and shoulder (8.7%). Common diagnoses were complete ligament strain (32.1%) and fracture (26.4%). Nearly half (48.0%) resulted in medical disqualification for the season.
Rates and patterns of injuries requiring surgery differ by sport, type of exposure, and gender. Future studies should identify sport-specific risk factors to drive effective interventions to decrease the incidence and severity of such injuries.
- SourceAvailable from: Steven D StovitzBritish Journal of Sports Medicine 04/2012; 46(14):960-3. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090693 · 5.03 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The The kinematic interrelationships between the lower limbs, pelvis, trunk, and racquet in the performance of the high velocity tennis serve were investigated for 10 participants using a 12 camera opto-reflective Vicon MX system, operating at 250Hz. The average absolute peak racquet centre velocity was 34.0m∙s-1, which is comparable to previous studies using high performance players. Peak vertical linear velocity of the right shoulder was highly correlated with this maximum pre-impact racquet resultant velocity (MRV: r = 0.808, p < .001), yet horizontal velocity of the same shoulder shared no relationship with MRV. The vertical drive of the hitting shoulder was strongly associated with drive from both trunk and lower limbs, in particular on the hitting side. The results highlighted the importance of creating a large upward drive of the hitting shoulder in the high performance tennis serve with contributions from both the trunk and the lower limbs playing key roles.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. METHODS: US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. RESULTS: From 2005/06-2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34-3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls' soccer (4.53) and girls' gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39-1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91-2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11-1.53). CONCLUSIONS: Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 10/2012; DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318277acca · 4.46 Impact Factor