Prognostic factors for outcomes in allogeneic transplantation for CML in the imatinib era: a CIBMTR analysis.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
Bone marrow transplantation (Impact Factor: 3.47). 10/2011; 47(6):810-6. DOI: 10.1038/bmt.2011.194
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT is an effective treatment in accelerated (AP) or blast phase (BP) CML. Imatinib (IM) has transient but significant activity in advanced phases of CML, which may permit early allografting for responding patients. To identify prognostic factors in allograft recipients previously treated with IM, we analyzed 449 allogeneic hematopoietic SCTs performed from 1999 to 2004 in advanced-phase CML, using the data reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. CML patients in second chronic phase (CP2, n=184), AP (n=185) and BP (n=80) received HLA-identical sibling (27%), related (3%), or matched or mismatched unrelated donor (70%), peripheral blood (47%) or BM (53%) hematopoietic SCT after myeloablative (78%) or non-myeloablative (22%) conditioning. In all, 52% in CP2, 49% in AP and 46% in BP received IM before hematopoietic SCT. Disease-free survival was 35-40% for CP2, 26-27% for AP and 8-11% for BP. Cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD and TRM were not affected by the stages of CML or pre-hematopoietic SCT IM exposure. Multivariate analyses showed that conventional prognostic indicators remain the strongest determinants of transplant outcomes. In conclusion, there are no new prognostic indicators of the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for advanced-phase CML in the IM era.

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    ABSTRACT: Although there are now fewer allo-SCTs performed for CML, leukemic relapse post transplant remains a persistent problem. To better define clinical and biological parameters determining postrelapse outcome, we studied 59 patients with CML relapsing after HLA-identical sibling allo-SCT between 1993 and 2008. Eighteen (30.5%) were transplanted in advanced phase and 41 (69.5%) in chronic phase. With a median follow-up from relapse of 7.9 years, 5-year post relapse survival (PRS) was 62%. Multivariate analysis found disease status at transplant, time to diagnosis of relapse from transplant and pretransplant tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) use as significant factors associated with PRS. Analysis of BCR-ABL transcript expression in the hematopoietic progenitor compartment was performed in 36 patients (22 relapsed, 8 non-relapsed and 6 TKI alone controls). Patients with BCR-ABL expression in their early hematopoietic stem cell compartment (Lineage(-)CD34(+)CD38(-)CD90(+)) had worse survival irrespective of the disease status. We conclude that disease status remains the strongest clinical prognostic factor for PRS in CML following allo-SCT. The persistence of BCR-ABL expression in the progenitor cell compartment in some patients after SCT emphasizes the need to target CML-leukemia stem cells.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 10 November 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.249.
    Bone Marrow Transplantation 11/2014; 50(2). DOI:10.1038/bmt.2014.249
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Flow cytometry (FC) is a commonly requested test in the workup of leukocytosis in community practices. The role of FC in chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) is unknown. We hypothesized that finding aberrant cells with FC in CP-CML may predict early blast-phase (BP) transformation.METHODS Results for FC performed at the time of diagnosis for adult and pediatric patients with CP-CML who were referred to our institution were reviewed, and they were correlated with outcomes.RESULTSFC was performed at the time of diagnosis for 110 of 233 patients (47%) with CP-CML. Aberrant populations, representing a median of 2% (range, 0.3%-15%), were detected with FC in 30% of patients (33 of 110): 2 of these 33 patients expressed lymphoid markers, and 31 expressed aberrant myeloid markers. Patients received imatinib (85%), dasatinib (12%), or nilotinib (3%) as their first-line treatment. With a median follow-up of 43 months (range, 2-113 months), chronic myeloid leukemia transformed to BP in 5 of the 33 patients. The 2 patients with lymphoid markers and the 3 of 31 patients with aberrant myeloid markers experienced a transformation to lymphoid BP at a median of 11 months (range, 4-72 months) after the initiation of tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Although both cases with detectable lymphoid markers rapidly progressed to lymphoid BP, the positive predictive value of BP transformation by the detection of myeloid aberrant cells with FC was only 10% (3 of 31).CONCLUSIONS In contrast to aberrant myeloid markers, the detection of lymphoid markers by FC at the time of the diagnosis of CP-CML appears to be associated with early progression to lymphoid BP. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 11/2014; 121(6). DOI:10.1002/cncr.29142
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    ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently recommended as 2nd or 3rd line therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in first chronic phase or as salvage for patients with very advanced disease. As a consequence, numbers of HSCT in chronic phase have dropped significantly since the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), numbers of transplants in advanced disease to a lesser extent. These current recommendations consider primarily disease risk, defined as failure of TKI therapy; they might need to be adapted. We propose a more balanced appraisal of HSCT for individual patients which should include disease risk, transplant risk, and macroeconomic aspects. HSCT should be integrated into the treatment algorithms from diagnosis and be considered very early at first TKI failure for patients with high disease but low transplant risk. For patients with very advanced disease and high transplant risk in contrast, HSCT might only be recommended in a restricted research setting.
    Annals of Hematology 04/2015; 94(Supplement 2):177-186. DOI:10.1007/s00277-015-2313-3

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