Comparison of four bioindication methods for assessing the degree of environmental lead and cadmium pollution.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to assess the application of several bioindication methods for the monitoring of environmental pollution from Pb and Cd. The study area centered on the town of Olkusz, Poland, which is one of the oldest centers for the metallurgical industry in Europe. The assessment of environmental pollution due to metals was performed using four frequently used bioindication methods: moss-bag (Sphagnum fallax), determination of metal accumulation in Pleurozium schreberi, silver birch foliage, and Scots pine needles. The region of Olkusz, and especially the area surrounding the mining and metallurgical Bolesław complex, was extremely contaminated with Pb and Cd. The results of the investigations are presented as contamination deposition maps. Despite the application of various methods and the resulting diversity of the specific exposure periods for different biomonitors, the spatial distribution of contamination shown on the maps was similar, as confirmed by the statistical analysis of the results.
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ABSTRACT: We investigate the effect of both foliar and root uptake of a mixture of metal(loid)s on the fatty acid composition of plant leaves. Our objectives are to determine whether both contamination pathways have a similar effect and whether they interact. Lactuca sativa L. were exposed to fine process particles enriched with metal(loid)s in an industrial area. Data from a first experiment were used to conduct an exploratory statistical analysis which findings were successfully cross-validated by using the data from a second one. Both foliar and root pathways impact plant leaf fatty acid composition and do not interact. Z index (dimensionless quantity), weighted product of fatty acid concentration ratios was built up from the statistical analyses. It provides new insights on the mechanisms involved in metal uptake and phytotoxicity. Plant leaf fatty acid composition is a robust and fruitful approach to detect and understand the effects of metal(loid) contamination on plants.Environmental Pollution 05/2013; 179C:242-249. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The uptake of arsenic and other metals (iron, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, nickel and tungsten) by Pinus pinaster Aiton (the maritime pine tree) growing in soils and tailings around an abandoned mine (northern Portugal) was investigated. Aerial parts of Pinus pinaster trees were sampled from three substrate areas: a background area, in mine contaminated soils and in tailings. Vegetation material was separated into needles and stems and subdivided into tissues of different maturities (1-, 2-, 3- and 4-years-old). The sampling of the substrate in each area was also undertaken. In general, vegetation concentrations were strongly related to substrate concentrations. The results show that the contents of several elements depend as much on the plant organ as on the age of the tissue. For the researched elements, this species shows a great variability in behavior depending on the age of the organ. The data indicate that the older needles constitute the best samples for use in a conjunct biogeochemical analysis of these elements.International journal of Environmental Science and Technology 05/2013; 10:809-826. · 1.84 Impact Factor