Notch1 regulates chemotaxis and proliferation by controlling the CC-chemokine receptors 5 and 9 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.
The Journal of Pathology (Impact Factor: 7.33). 10/2011; 226(5):713-22. DOI: 10.1002/path.3015
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Tumour cells often express deregulated profiles of chemokine receptors that regulate cancer cell migration and proliferation. Notch1 pathway activation is seen in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) due to the high frequency of Notch1 mutations affecting approximately 60% of patients, causing ligand-independent signalling and/or prolonging Notch1 half-life. We have investigated the possible regulative role of Notch1 on the expression and function of chemokine receptors CCR5, CCR9 and CXCR4 that play a role in determining blast malignant properties and localization of extramedullary infiltrations in leukaemia. We inhibited the pathway through γ-Secretase inhibitor and Notch1 RNA interference and analysed the effect on the expression and function of chemokine receptors. Our results indicate that γ-Secretase inhibitor negatively regulates the transcription level of the CC chemokine receptors 5 and 9 in T-ALL cell lines and patients' primary leukaemia cells, leaving CXCR4 expression unaltered. The Notch pathway also controls CCR5- and CCR9-mediated biological effects, ie chemotaxis and proliferation. Furthermore, engaging CCR9 through CCL25 administration rescues proliferation inhibition associated with abrogation of Notch activity. Finally, through RNA interference we demonstrated that the oncogenic isoform in T-ALL, Notch1, plays a role in controlling CCR5 and CCR9 expression and functions. These findings suggest that Notch1, acting in concert with chemokine receptors pathways, may provide leukaemia cells with proliferative advantage and specific chemotactic abilities, therefore influencing tumour cell progression and localization.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Leukemia is a systemic malignancy originated from hematopoietic cells. The extracellular environment has great impacts on the survival, proliferation and dissemination of leukemia cells. The spleen is an important organ for extramedullary hematopoiesis and a common infiltration site in lymphoid malignancies. Splenomegaly, frequently observed in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), is associated with poor prognosis. However, how the spleen microenvironment distinctly affects T-ALL cells as opposed to bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has not been addressed.MethodsA Notch1-induced mouse T-ALL model was applied in this study. Flow cytometry and two-photon fluorescence microscopy were used to analyze early distribution of T-ALL cells. MILLIPLEX® MAP Multiplex Immunoassay was performed to measure cytokine/chemokine levels in different microenvironments. Transwell and co-culture experiments were used to test the effects of splenic microenvironment in vitro. Splenectomy was performed to assess the organ specific impact on the survival of T-ALL-bearing mice.ResultsMore leukemia cells were detected in the spleen than in the BM after injection of T-ALL cells by flow cytometry and two-photon fluorescence microscopy analysis. By screening a panel of cytokines/chemokines, a higher level of MIP-3ß was found in the splenic microenvironment than BM microenvironment. In vitro transwell experiment further confirmed that MIP-3ß recruits T-ALL cells which express a high level of MIP-3ß receptor, CCR7. Furthermore, the splenic microenvironment stimulates T-ALL cells to express a higher level of MIP-3ß, which further recruits T-ALL cells to the spleen. Co-culture experiment found that the splenic microenvironment more potently stimulated the proliferation and migration of T-ALL cells than BM. Moreover, the mice transplanted with T-ALL cells from the spleen had a shorter life span than those transplanted from BM, suggesting increased potency of the T-ALL cells induced by the splenic microenvironment. In addition, splenectomy prolonged the survival of leukemic mice.Conclusions Our study demonstrates an organ specific effect on leukemia development. Specifically, T-ALL cells can be potentiated by splenic microenvironment and thus spleen may serve as a target organ for the treatment of some types of leukemia.
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    ABSTRACT: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a malignant disorder that originates from one single hematopoietic precursor committed to B- or T-cell lineage. Ordinarily, these cells express CCR5 chemokine receptor, which directs the immune response to a cellular pattern and is involved in cancer pathobiology. The genetic rs333 polymorphism of CCR5 (Δ32), results in a diminished receptor expression, thus leading to impaired cell trafficking. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of CCR5 chemokine receptor rs333 polymorphism in the pathogenesis of ALL. The genotype distribution was studied in 79 patients and compared with 80 control subjects, in a childhood population of Southern Brazil. Genotyping was performed using DNA samples amplified by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). The homozygous (Δ32/Δ32) deletion was not observed in any subject involved in the study. Heterozygous genotype was not associated with ALL risk (OR 0.7%; 95% CI 0.21-2.32; P > 0.05), nor recurrence status of ALL (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.13-5.48; P > 0.05). This work demonstrated, for the first time, no significant differences in the frequency of the CCR5/Δ32 genotype between ALL and control groups, indicating no effect of this genetic variant on the ALL susceptibility and recurrence risk.
    Advances in Hematology 01/2014; 2014:924030.
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    mAbs 04/2014; 6(4). · 4.73 Impact Factor

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