Pharmacokinetic drug interaction between AEE788 and RAD001 causing thrombocytopenia in patients with glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT Treating glioblastoma through the simultaneous inhibition of multiple transduction pathways may prove more effective than single-pathway inhibition. We evaluated the safety, biologic activity, and pharmacokinetic profile of oral AEE788, a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), plus oral RAD001, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, in glioblastoma patients.
This phase IB/II, open-label, multicenter, 2-arm, dose-escalation study enrolled adult glioblastoma patients at first or second recurrence/relapse. Primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) of AEE788 combined with RAD001. Secondary objectives included determining the safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of the combination.
Sixteen patients were enrolled (AEE788 200 mg/day + RAD001 5 mg/day, 2 patients; AEE788 150 mg/day + RAD001 5 mg every other day [qod], 14); all patients discontinued the study most commonly because of disease progression. Four patients experienced DLT (AEE788 200 mg/day + RAD001 5 mg/day, 1 patient; AEE788 150 mg/day + RAD001 5 mg qod, 3). Both patients receiving AEE788 (200 mg/day) plus RAD001 (5 mg/day) experienced clinically significant thrombocytopenia requiring a dose reduction/interruption. AEE788 appeared to inhibit the metabolism of RAD001. The study was terminated prematurely before an MTD was determined because of safety findings in other studies evaluating AEE788 monotherapy.
The coadministration of AEE788 and RAD001 in glioblastoma patients caused a clinically significant thrombocytopenia and a higher-than-expected RAD001 area under the curve concentration when dosed at 200 and 5 mg/day, respectively. After a dose reduction to AEE788 (150 mg/day) and RAD001 (5 mg qod), the combination appeared to be better tolerated.
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ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulatory protein in neoangiogenesis, is strongly expressed in a variety of primary brain tumors, particularly malignant gliomas. In previous studies, high levels of VEGF were also reported in tumor cysts of glioblastomas. Using an ELISA method we measured the concentration of VEGF in matched samples of aspiration fluid from tumor cysts and serum. Samples were collected from 14 patients with primary brain tumors of various histology (six glioblastomas, one protoplasmatic astrocytoma, two pilocytic astrocytomas, one ependymoma, one meningioma, and three craniopharyngiomas) and two patients with solitary cystic brain metastases from adenocarcinomas of the lung. Aspiration fluids of tumor cysts from all patients revealed high VEGF levels ranging between 882 and 1,263,000 pg/ml, which were 2 to more than 2,000 times higher than the corresponding serum levels. Maximum VEGF levels were detectable in cyst fluids from recurrent glioblastoma. Serum VEGF levels ranged between 125 and 716 pg/ml and did not differ from serum levels in 145 healthy volunteers. In a single patient with metastatic lung cancer the concentration of VEGF in serum and cyst fluid was determined during disease progression. During 60 days of follow-up VEGF concentrations in the cyst fluid collected by puncture of an Ommaya reservoir increased 650-fold, while serum levels remained rather constant. These findings indicate that immunoreactive VEGF is produced at the tumor site and abundantly released into the cyst fluid of primary and metastatic brain tumors. Interestingly, this abundant local release is not reflected in serum VEGF levels, even in the case of very high VEGF concentrations in tumor cysts. Thus, VEGF may be biologically relevant for the formation of tumor cysts in brain tumors and correlates with local disease progression.Acta Neuropathologica 04/2000; 100(1):101-105. · 9.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe an adaptive dose escalation scheme for use in cancer phase I clinical trials. The method is fully adaptive, makes use of all the information available at the time of each dose assignment, and directly addresses the ethical need to control the probability of overdosing. It is designed to approach the maximum tolerated dose as fast as possible subject to the constraint that the predicted proportion of patients who receive an overdose does not exceed a specified value. We conducted simulations to compare the proposed method with four up-and-down designs, two stochastic approximation methods, and with a variant of the continual reassessment method. The results showed the proposed method effective as a means to control the frequency of overdosing. Relative to the continual reassessment method, our scheme overdosed a smaller proportion of patients, exhibited fewer toxicities and estimated the maximum tolerated dose with comparable accuracy. When compared to the non-parametric schemes, our method treated fewer patients at either subtherapeutic or severely toxic dose levels, treated more patients at optimal dose levels and estimated the maximum tolerated dose with smaller average bias and mean squared error. Hence, the proposed method is promising alternative to currently used cancer phase I clinical trial designs.Statistics in Medicine 06/1998; 17(10):1103-20. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Whether the apparent efficacy of a specific kinase inhibitor is attributable solely to inhibition of its primary target, or to combined inhibition of additional unidentified kinases, is a critical issue in cancer therapy. We used a chemical genetic approach to generate a selective inhibitor of v-erbB [a transforming allele of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)] and interrogated inhibition in known downstream signaling pathways. On the basis of this analysis, we hypothesized that dual inhibition of v-erbB and phosphatidylinositol 3' (PI3) kinases could show improved potency. We, therefore, used two different cell lines to examine the effects of v-erbB or EGFR inhibitors, in combination with PI3 kinase inhibitors, in mouse models for EGFR-driven cancers. When treated with NaPP1, v-erbB-as1-transformed fibroblasts showed cell-cycle arrest and decreased activity of Akt kinase. Inhibitors of v-erbB-as1 and of PI3 kinase showed enhanced efficacy in treating established 3T3:v-erbB-as1 tumor allografts. We extended these results to the human glioma cell line U87:MG transduced with DeltaEGFR, a tumor-derived activated allele, treating tumor-bearing mice with vehicle, the EGFR inhibitor ZD1839, LY294002, or ZD1839 plus LY294002. In human glioma xenografts, inhibition of EGFR cooperated similarly with inhibition of PI3 kinase. Our experiments provide a preclinical mechanistic basis for combining biologically based therapies directed against two targets within a complex signaling cascade.Cancer Research 01/2004; 63(24):8930-8. · 8.65 Impact Factor