Sublytic C5b-9 complexes induce proliferative changes of glomerular mesangial cells in rat Thy-1 nephritis through TRAF6-mediated PI3K-dependent Akt1 activation.
ABSTRACT The proliferation of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) and secretion of extracellular matrix (ECM) in rat Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N), resembling human mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN), have been studied for many years, but the mechanisms, especially the role of signalling pathway activation and its regulation in GMCs triggered by sublytic C5b-9 complexes in Thy-1N rats remain largely unclear. In the study, the proliferation of GMCs and production of ECM as well as the role of PI3K/Akt and its regulation, both in GMCs induced by sublytic C5b-9 (in vitro) and in the renal tissues of rats with Thy-1N (in vivo), were determined and the results revealed that GMCs proliferation and ECM secretion, both in vitro and in vivo, were notably increased, and that PI3K/Akt1 activation and its regulation, such as TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-mediated Akt1 ubiquitination and PI3K-dependent Akt1 phosphorylation, were involved in the process of Thy-1N induction. On the other hand, silence of the TRAF6, PI3K or Akt1 genes could obviously diminish the proliferative damages and urinary protein secretion of Thy-1N rats. Together, these data implicated that sublytic C5b-9 complexes in Thy-1N rats could promote GMCs proliferation and ECM production through TRAF6-mediated PI3K-dependent Akt1 activation, in which the ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the Akt1 signal molecule played an important role in the initiation and development of the proliferative changes in the rats with Thy-1N.
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ABSTRACT: Migration and proliferation of aortic endothelial cells (AEC) are critical processes involved in angiogenesis, atherosclerosis, and postangioplasty restenosis. Activation of complement and assembly of the C5b-9 complement complex have been implicated in the pre-lesional stage of atherogenesis and progression of the atherosclerotic lesion. We have shown that C5b-9 induces proliferation and activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but it is unknown whether this can lead to activation of Akt in AEC, a major downstream target of PI3K, or if C5b-9 can induce the migration of AEC, a critical step in angiogenesis. In this study, we show that C5b-9 induces AEC proliferation and migration and also activates the PI3K/Akt pathway. C5b-9 activates Akt as shown by in vitro kinase assay and phosphorylation of Ser-473. C5b-9-induced cell cycle activation was inhibited by pretreatment with LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), SH-5 (Akt inhibitor), or transfection with Akt siRNA. These data suggests that the PI3K/Akt pathway is required for C5b-9-induced cell cycle activation. FOXO1, a member of forkhead transcription factor family, was phosphorylated at Ser-256 and inactivated after C5b-9 stimulation as shown by a decrease in DNA binding and cytoplasmic relocalization. Cytoplasmic relocalization was significantly reduced after pretreatment with LY294002, SH-5, or transfection with Akt siRNA. Silencing FOXO1 expression using siRNA stimulated AEC proliferation and regulated angiogenic factor release. Our data indicate that C5b-9 regulation of the cell cycle activation in AEC through Akt pathway is dependent on inactivation of FOXO1.Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2006; 281(28):19009-18. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The complement C5b-9 complexes can result in cell apoptosis, but the mechanism of sublytic C5b-9-mediated glomerular mesangial cell (GMC) apoptosis in Thy-1 nephritis (Thy-1N) remains largely unclear. The Gadd45 gene is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage and can promote cell apoptosis. In this study, both Gadd45 gamma expression patterns and pathologic changes of renal tissue were examined in rat Thy-1N. Both Gadd45 gamma expression and GMC apoptosis were significantly decreased in Thy-1N rats upon the depletion of complement with cobra venom factor. Our in vitro studies showed that Gadd45 gamma over-expression increased sublytic C5b-9-induced GMC apoptosis, while Gadd45 gamma gene knockdown by siRNA greatly reduced GMC apoptosis. Moreover, Gadd45 gamma gene silencing in vivo markedly inhibited the pathologic changes in the renal tissue of Thy-1N rats. These data suggest that Gadd45 gamma gene expression is involved in regulating GMC apoptosis mediated by sublytic C5b-9 in Thy-1N.European Journal of Immunology 10/2009; 39(11):3251-66. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary IgA nephropathy, a chronic nephritis with variable prognosis, is characterized by mesangial immunoglobulin A, frequently with codeposition of other immunoglobulin isotypes and complement components accompanying matrix expansion typically preceding glomerular scarring. Glomerular immunoglobulin G, when present, is localized to the mesangial periphery found variably in repeat biopsies. IgG anti-mesangial cell autoantibodies (IgG-MESCA) in sera of patients with IgA nephropathy, specific by F(ab')(2) binding to 48- and 55-kD autoantigen(s) could account for these deposits, but their in vivo localization, and the functional role in promoting scarring is unknown. A specific monoclonal antibody raised previously to these human mesangial cell autoantigen fractions, in this study localized to similar glomerular sites, reinforcing the view that immunoglobulin G deposition in vivo is a result of antibody-autoantigen binding. The propensity for immunoglobulin G more than other isotypes to enhance inflammation prompted study of its functional role in vitro. Using cultured human mesangial cells in a complement-free tritiated glycosaminoglycan synthesis single outcome assay, purified IgG fractions from patient sera increased matrix production in a dose-dependent manner compared with controls. At a constant total IgG concentration, matrix synthesis was proportional to the titre of IgG-MESCA. Autoreactive IgG stimulated matrix synthesis when compared with controls or IgA fractions. These findings are consistent with IgG-MESCA autoantibodies enhancing mesangial matrix synthesis in vitro, which suggests that in IgA nephropathy, similar prosclerotic autoimmune mechanisms might operate. Recombinant TGFbeta(1) also induced matrix synthesis, raising the possibility that both autoimmune mechanisms and those TGFbeta(1)-dependent are functional or inter-related. The pathogenesis of glomerular scarring and loss in IgA nephropathy may include, in part, these mechanisms.Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 07/2006; 147(6):301-9. · 2.62 Impact Factor