Diagnostic sensitivity of ¹⁸fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients.
ABSTRACT We assessed the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers, particularly synchronous esophageal cancers in head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 230 head and neck cancer patients. All the patients routinely underwent the following examinations: urinalysis, occult blood, tumor marker detection [squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)], esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy (when CEA was high or occult blood was positive), abdominal ultrasonography, plain chest computed tomography (CT), and PET. Bronchoscopy was performed when CT revealed lung shadow of central region. Synchronous multiple primary cancers were detected in 42 (18.2%) patients. The diagnostic sensitivity of PET for synchronous primary cancers was as follows: esophagus, 7.6% (1/13); stomach, 25.0% (2/8); lung, 66.7% (4/6); head and neck, 75.0% (3/4); colon, 0% (0/1); kidney, 0% (0/1); and subcutaneous, 100% (1/1). The sensitivity of PET for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers is low because these are early-stage cancers (almost stage 0-I). Therefore, it is necessary to perform esophagogastroduodenoscopy for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers. PET is an important additional tool for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous head and neck cancer and lung cancer is high. But PET has the limitation of sensitivity for synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous esophageal cancer is very low.
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ABSTRACT: Among different imaging modalities, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) gained importance in routine hospital practice depending on ability to diagnose diseases in early stages and tracing of therapy by obtaining metabolic information. The combination of PET with Computed Tomography (CT) forms hybrid imaging modality that gives chance to obtain better images having higher resolution by fusing both functional and anatomical images in the same imaging modality at the same time. Therefore, better contrast agents are essentially needed. The advance in research about developing drug delivery systems as specific nanosized targeted systems gained an additional importance for obtaining better diagnosis and therapy of different diseases. Liposomes appear to be more attractive drug delivery systems in delivering either drugs or imaging ligands to target tissue or organ of diseases with higher accumulation by producing in nano-scale, long circulating by stealth effect and specific targeting by modifying with specific ligands or markers. The combination of positron emitting radionuclides with liposomes are commonly in research level nowadays and there is no commercially available liposome formulation for PET imaging. However by conjugating positron emitter radionuclide with liposomes can form promising diagnostic agents for improved diagnosis and following up treatments by increasing image signal/contrast in the target tissue in lower concentrations by specific targeting as the most important advantage of liposomes. More accurate and earlier diagnosis of several diseases can be obtained even in molecular level with the use of stable and effectively radiolabeled molecular target specific nano sized liposomes with longer half-lived positron emitting radionuclides.Drug Delivery 01/2012; 19(1):68-80. DOI:10.3109/10717544.2011.635721 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Reliable diagnosis plays an important role in the early detection of head and neck tumors. The objective of this study was to compare the value and clinical relevance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) regarding the assessment and the identification of head and neck tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 1, 2005, to January 1, 2007, 120 patients suffering from carcinomas of the oropharynx and larynx were examined by means of MRI and PET. RESULTS: The difference between sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET was not significant with regard to the diagnosis of primary tumors, recurrence, or cancer of unknown primary. A statistically significant difference between both methods only occurred for detectron of malignant lymph nodes of size >10 mm. CONCLUSION: In particular, the assessment of small tumors by MRI and PET is characterized by a high number of false-negative findings. The future of diagnostic imaging is likely to be a combination of both techniques, as a hybrid technique.Anticancer research 03/2013; 33(3):1141-1146. · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) scan technology in the management of head and neck cancers continues to increase. We discuss the biology of FDG uptake in malignant lesions and also discuss the physics of PET imaging. The various parameters described to quantify FDG uptake in cancers including standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis are presented. PET scans have found a significant role in the diagnosis and staging of head and neck cancers. They are also being increasingly used in radiation therapy treatment planning. Many groups have also used PET derived values to serve as prognostic indicators of outcomes including loco-regional control and overall survival. FDG PET scans are also proving very useful in assessing the efficacy of treatment and management and follow-up of head and neck cancer patients. This review article focuses on the role of FDG-PET computed tomography scans in these areas for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. We present the current state of the art and speculate on the future applications of this technology including protocol development, newer imaging methods such as combined magnetic resonance and PET imaging and novel radiopharmaceuticals that can be used to further study tumor biology.06/2014; 6(6):238-51. DOI:10.4329/wjr.v6.i6.238