Diagnostic sensitivity of ¹⁸fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers in head and neck cancer patients.
ABSTRACT We assessed the sensitivity of positron emission tomography (PET) for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers, particularly synchronous esophageal cancers in head and neck cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed 230 head and neck cancer patients. All the patients routinely underwent the following examinations: urinalysis, occult blood, tumor marker detection [squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment (CYFRA), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)], esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy (when CEA was high or occult blood was positive), abdominal ultrasonography, plain chest computed tomography (CT), and PET. Bronchoscopy was performed when CT revealed lung shadow of central region. Synchronous multiple primary cancers were detected in 42 (18.2%) patients. The diagnostic sensitivity of PET for synchronous primary cancers was as follows: esophagus, 7.6% (1/13); stomach, 25.0% (2/8); lung, 66.7% (4/6); head and neck, 75.0% (3/4); colon, 0% (0/1); kidney, 0% (0/1); and subcutaneous, 100% (1/1). The sensitivity of PET for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers is low because these are early-stage cancers (almost stage 0-I). Therefore, it is necessary to perform esophagogastroduodenoscopy for detecting synchronous esophageal cancers. PET is an important additional tool for detecting synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous head and neck cancer and lung cancer is high. But PET has the limitation of sensitivity for synchronous multiple primary cancers because the diagnostic sensitivity of PET in synchronous esophageal cancer is very low.
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ABSTRACT: Multiple primary malignant tumors associated with an index cancer in the head and neck are gaining attention as more patients survive their initial primary disease, the longevity of the population at large increases, health care delivery becomes more readily available, and sophisticated diagnostic technology is developed. Forty-four patients with multiple primary cancer in whom the index neoplasm was inthe head and neck are reported. This group comprises 17 per cent of the patients with head and neck cancer treated at the Detroit General Hospital in the last 10 years. Forty-seven per cent of the cancers occurred simultaneously, 10 per cent were synchronous (discovered within six months), and 43 per cent were metachronous (discovered later than six months). Eighty-six per cent of the patients are dead; 75 per cent died within one year after the diagnosis of the secondary primary cancer. Patients with simultaneously occurring malignant tumors appeared to have a somewhat poorer prognosis than those with metachronously occurring tumors. Although the highest incidence of multiple primary malignant tumors occurs in the first year, a consistent high incidence puts the patient with a solitary neoplasm at risk well beyond the three to five years of survival usually considered as "cure." Although no factor other than coincidence has been proved to be involved in the pattern of occurrence of multiple primary neoplasms of different tissues or organs, this study does corroborate other reported data that emphasize that patients with head and neck cancer are at greater risk of developing a second primary malignant tumor in the multicentric vicinity of the original lesion, and in the esophagus and lung than the general population. A program of management and post-treatment surveillance is presented. The potential for new primary malignant neoplasms to develop in the multicentric vicinity of the original lesion and in remote organs cannot be approached with detached curiosity.American Journal of Otolaryngology 12/1980; 1(5):411-7. · 1.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pattern of second primary cancer occurrence in 518 Scottish patients with head and neck cancer was determined by a retrospective study. The overall incidence of second cancers was 9% but the true incidence increased steadily in the years following initial diagnosis to reach a maximum of 21% at 11 years. After 4 years of follow-up patients were more likely to die from a second primary cancer than from the effects of the initial tumour. The Scottish cohort differed from previously reported, overseas, study groups in having a high incidence of second primary cancers in sites outside the upper aerodigestive tract. This potential demographic difference suggests a need for local audit prior to design and implementation of screening protocols for second primary cancers.Clinical Otolaryngology 01/1993; 17(6):558-62. · 2.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Second primary tumors are a leading cause of death among patients with head and neck cancer; therefore, early detection of these tumors is necessary. In the current study, the authors aimed to evaluate the diagnostic capacity of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose dual-head positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for detecting second primary tumors in patients presenting with primary head and neck cancer. The authors prospectively studied a case series of 68 consecutive patients with a primary tumor in the oral cavity or oropharynx. Within a period of 3 weeks, clinical examination, chest X-ray, computed tomography, and ultrasonography of the head and neck were performed on all patients. Irrespective of the results, patients underwent FDG-PET of the head, neck, and chest. Due to its low yield in the detection of second primary tumors, panendoscopy was not used in this study. All patients were followed up for at least 6 months to assess the number of simultaneous and synchronous tumors missed by FDG-PET. In 12 of 68 patients (18%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 8-28%), a second simultaneous primary malignant tumor was found by FDG-PET. Five of these tumors (7%; 95% CI: 1-13%) were also detected by clinical or radiologic examination (P = 0.016). With one exception, all tumors were found in the epithelium of the upper digestive and respiratory tract. However, even when the patient with a second primary tumor in the thyroid was excluded from evaluation, FDG-PET significantly improved the detection rate of second primaries (P = 0.031). In none of the 68 patients studied were additional simultaneous or synchronous primary tumors found during follow-up. The use of FDG-PET significantly increases the rate of detection of simultaneous second primary tumors. The results of our study suggest that most of the second primary tumors are detected in an early stage.Cancer 01/2000; 86(11):2370-7. · 5.20 Impact Factor