Phase I trial of preoperative intratumoral injection of immature dendritic cells and OK-432 for resectable pancreatic cancer patients
ABSTRACT To determine the feasibility, safety and histological change of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle injection (PEU-FNI) of immature DCs (iDCs) with OK-432 in pancreatic cancer patients.
Nine patients enrolled in the trial (DC group) and were compared with 15 patients operated on without iDC injection (non-DC group). Adverse events of PEU-FNI and postoperative complications were evaluated according to CTC-AE ver.3.0 and the Clavien-Dindo classification/ISGPF definition, respectively. Histological changes within the tumor and lymph nodes were evaluated by immunohistochemical examination of infiltrating inflammatory cells (CD4+, CD8+, Foxp3+ and CD83+).
There were no severe toxicities following PEU-FNI, except for one transient grade 3 fever, and there were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups. Colliquative necrosis and diffusely scattered TUNEL-positive cells were observed at the injection sites. CD83+ cells significantly accumulated in the regional lymph nodes of the DC group as well as Foxp3+ cells in the regional and distant lymph nodes. The two DC group patients, one of which was stage IV with distant lymph node metastasis, survived more than 5 years without requiring adjuvant theraphy.
PEU-FNI was feasible and safe, and further study needs to confirm and enhance antitumor responses.
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ABSTRACT: During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.Oncotarget 12/2014; 5(24). · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The use of patient-derived dendritic cells (DCs) as a means to elicit therapeutically relevant immune responses in cancer patients has been extensively investigated throughout the past decade. In this context, DCs are generally expanded, exposed to autologous tumor cell lysates or loaded with specific tumor associated antigens (TAAs), and then reintroduced into patients, often in combination with one or more immunostimulatory agents. As an alternative, TAAs are targeted to DCs in vivo by means of monoclonal antibodies, carbohydrate moieties or viral vectors specific for DC receptors. All these approaches have been shown to (re) activate tumor-specific immune responses in mice, often mediating robust therapeutic effects. In 2010, the first DCbased preparation (sipuleucel-T, also known as Provenge�) has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in humans. Reflecting the central position occupied by DCs in the regulation of immunological tolerance and adaptive immunity, the interest in harnessing them for the development of novel immunotherapeutic anticancer regimens remains high. Here, we summarize recent advances in the preclinical and clinical development of DC-based anticancer therapeutics.OncoImmunology 05/2014; 3(11). DOI:10.4161/21624011.2014.963424 · 6.28 Impact Factor