Inhibition of HIV entry by extracellular glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans
ABSTRACT Cryptococcosis, caused by Cryptococcus neoformans, is the most common opportunistic fungal disease in HIV/AIDS patients. The prognosis of AIDS patients with Cryptococcus infection is very poor. One of the major characteristics in cryptococcosis patients is the presence of high concentrations of the cryptococcal capsule polysaccharide (CCP) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid. CCP enhances HIV replication in H9 T-cells, but the mechanism is unknown. In this study, we tested whether extracellular glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), a major component of CCP, enhances HIV entry using replication-incompetent HIV and a cell line which expresses a stable amount of CD4 and both of the HIV co-receptors. Extracellular GXM had no effect on cell-cell fusion however; viral entry surprisingly was inhibited by GXM. Hence, any enhancement of replication must be due to an effect that occurs post-entry.
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ABSTRACT: Fungal exopolysaccharides (EPSs) have been recognized as high value biomacromolecules for the last two decades. These products, including pullulan, scleroglucan, and botryosphaeran, have several applications in industries, pharmaceuticals, medicine, foods etc. Although fungal EPSs are highly relevant, to date information concerning fungal biosynthesis is scarce and an extensive search for new fugal species that can produce novel EPSs is still needed. In most cases, the molecular weight variations and sugar compositions of fungal EPSs are dependent to culture medium composition and different physical conditions provided during fermentation. An inclusive and illustrative review on fungal EPS is presented here. The general outline of the present work includes fungal EPS production, their compositions and applications. An emphasis is also given to listing out different fungal strains that can produce EPSs.Microbiology Insights 01/2013; 6:1-16. DOI:10.4137/MBI.S10957