Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and humans
ABSTRACT Since 2004 MRSA emerged in animals, particularly in pigs and veal calves. This new MRSA variant was since its first appearance referred to as Livestock Associated-MRSA (LA-MRSA). In Europe and Northern America, LA-MRSA belongs predominantly to clonal complex (CC) 398 whereas in Asia ST9 seems to be dominant in pigs. Persons in direct contact with LA-MRSA-positive animals have an increased risk of becoming MRSA positive. The risk of carriage is mainly related with the intensity of animal contact and with MRSA prevalence among animals on the farm. In contrast with its success in animals, it seemed that MRSA CC398 is a poor persistent colonizer in humans. MRSA ST398 can, however, cause serious (invasive) infections and outbreaks, although, only incidentally reported so far. Farm hygiene and antimicrobial use contributed to MRSA occurrence in animals. Therefore these two determinants should in principle be incorporated into MRSA-control programmes in animal production. Like any other microorganism, LA-MRSA is expected to be able to adapt to new hosts and may change over time in the potential to colonize and to produce toxins. Also, the current circulating clone CC398 may be replaced by another clone in Western countries or emerge in countries where this clone is currently low-prevalent. Ongoing MRSA surveillance in humans and animals is needed to detect changes in epidemiology and to implement effective control measures.
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ABSTRACT: Emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) in bovine milk is a major public health concern. The primary purpose of this research was to determine molecular genetic characteristics and antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates recovered from milk of mastitic cows in the Shaanxi Province in Northwestern China. One hundred and thirteen methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), one mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA, seven mecA- and mecC- negative but phenotype-positive MRSA and two MR-CoNS including one oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive Staphylococcus haemolyticus (OS-MRSH) and one mecA-positive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates were recovered from 214 quarter milk samples on 4 dairy farms. All above 123 isolates were subjected to antibiotic resistance profiling. S. aureus isolates were also genotyped using the spa typing and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Eight MRSA and 2 MR-CoNS isolates were additionally tested for SCCmec types. Resistance was common among isolates against ampicillin or penicillin (80.5%), kanamycin (68.3%), gentamicin (67.5%), tetracycline (43.9%) and chloramphenicol (30.1%). However, no isolate was resistant to vancomycin or teicoplanin. Twenty, 29 and 58 isolates showed resistance to 1, 2 or more than 2 antibiotics, respectively. The predominant multidrug resistance profile was penicillin/ampicillin/kanamycin/gentamicin/tetracycline (46 isolates). Most S. aureus isolates belonged to spa types t524 (n = 63), t11772 (a new type, n = 31) and t4207 (n = 15). At the same time, MLST types ST71 (n = 67) and ST2738 (a new type, n = 45) were identified as dominant sequence types. The mecA-positive and phenotype-positive MRSA isolate had a composite genotype t524-ST71-SCCmecIVa, while 7 mecA-negative but phenotype-positive MRSA isolates were all t524-ST71. The OS-MRSH isolate contained a type V SCCmec cassette, while the MRSE isolate possessed a non-typeable SCCmec. The spa-MLST types t11772-ST2738 (n = 27), t11807-ST2683 (n = 4) and t11771-ST2738 (n = 3) were newly identified genotypes of S. aureus. These new genotypes and multidrug-resistant staphylococci could pose additional threat to animal and human health.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0116699. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116699
Dataset: 0-meting ab gebruik KHK
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ABSTRACT: In addition to being a human pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus causes an array of infections in economically important livestock animals, particularly pigs. In Asia, there have been few reports on livestock-associated meticillin-resistant S. aureus (LA-MRSA), mostly from developed countries, with very few data available from resource-limited countries, not because of low prevalence but probably due to a shortage of diagnostic facilities. Unlike the wide spread of sequence type 398 (ST398) LA-MRSA in European countries and North America, ST9 predominates in most Asian countries. The prevalence of LA-MRSA among pigs in Asian countries varied widely (0.9–42.5%). The prevalence may vary by geographic location, age of pigs and sampling methodologies. Among pig farmers, the prevalence of nasal MRSA colonisation varied from 5.5% in Malaysia to 15% in China and 19.2% in Taiwan. Although most LA-MRSA isolates in Asia are of the same ST, molecular characteristics are not all the same. Dominant isolates in China were characterised as spa type t899-SCCmec III and t899-SCCmec IVb or V for isolates in Hong Kong, and t899-untypeable SCCmec for Taiwan. Dominant isolates in Malaysia were spa type t4358-SCCmec V and t337-SCCmec IX for isolates in Thailand. In addition, MRSA ST221 was reported in Japan and MRSA ST398 was isolated from commercial pigs in South Korea. Attention should be paid because pigs could become an important reservoir for MRSA and spread them to humans, as observed in many countries. There is a potential risk from the livestock reservoir to community and hospitals.International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.12.007