Decreases in valosin-containing protein result in increased levels of tau phosphorylated at Ser262/356

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA.
FEBS letters (Impact Factor: 3.34). 11/2011; 585(21):3424-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2011.09.032
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT VCP/p97 is a multifunctional AAA+-ATPase involved in vesicle fusion, proteasomal degradation, and autophagy. Reported dysfunctions of these processes in Alzheimer disease (AD), along with the linkage of VCP/p97 to inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) led us to examine the possible linkage of VCP to the AD-relevant protein, tau. VCP levels were reduced in AD brains, but not in the cerebral cortex of an AD mouse model, suggesting that VCP reduction occurs upstream of tau pathology. Genetic reduction of VCP in a primary neuronal model led to increases in the levels of tau phosphorylated at Ser(262/356), indicating that VCP may be involved in regulating post-translational processing of tau in AD, demonstrating a possible functional linkage between tau and VCP.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last several years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse; however, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+), 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In addition, saliva samples were investigated from 11 HIV-, non-heroin addicted healthy controls. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores, implicating disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, only one protein from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed a significant correlation with cognitive scores, and no proteins correlated with cognitive scores in the healthy control group. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e89366. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0089366 · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: One of the defining pathological features of Alzheimer disease (AD) is the intraneuronal accumulation of tau. The tau that forms these accumulations is altered both posttranslationally and conformationally, and there is now significant evidence that soluble forms of these modified tau species are the toxic entities rather than the insoluble neurofibrillary tangles. However there is still noteworthy debate concerning which specific pathological forms of tau are the contributors to neuronal dysfunction and death in AD. Given that increases in aberrant forms of tau play a role in the neurodegeneration process in AD, there is growing interest in understanding the degradative pathways that remove tau from the cell, and the selectivity of these different pathways for various forms of tau. Indeed, one can speculate that deficits in a pathway that selectively removes certain pathological forms of tau could play a pivotal role in AD. In this review we will discuss the different proteolytic and degradative machineries that may be involved in removing tau from the cell. How deficits in these different degradative pathways may contribute to abnormal accumulation of tau in AD will also be considered. In addition, the issue of the selective targeting of specific tau species to a given degradative pathway for clearance from the cell will be addressed.
    Frontiers in Neurology 09/2013; 4:122. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2013.00122


Available from