Two forms of loops generate the chromatin conformation of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene locus.
ABSTRACT The immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) gene locus undergoes radial repositioning within the nucleus and locus contraction in preparation for gene recombination. We demonstrate that IgH locus conformation involves two levels of chromosomal compaction. At the first level, the locus folds into several multilooped domains. One such domain at the 3' end of the locus requires an enhancer, Eμ; two other domains at the 5' end are Eμ independent. At the second level, these domains are brought into spatial proximity by Eμ-dependent interactions with specific sites within the V(H) region. Eμ is also required for radial repositioning of IgH alleles, indicating its essential role in large-scale chromosomal movements in developing lymphocytes. Our observations provide a comprehensive view of the conformation of IgH alleles in pro-B cells and the mechanisms by which it is established.
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ABSTRACT: Conditional knock-out (KO) of Polycomb Group (PcG) protein YY1 results in pro-B cell arrest and reduced immunoglobulin locus contraction needed for distal variable gene rearrangement. The mechanisms that control these crucial functions are unknown. We deleted the 25 amino-acid YY1 REPO domain necessary for YY1 PcG function, and used this mutant (YY1ΔREPO), to transduce bone marrow from YY1 conditional KO mice. While wild-type YY1 rescued B-cell development, YY1ΔREPO failed to rescue the B-cell lineage yielding reduced numbers of B lineage cells. Although the IgH rearrangement pattern was normal, there was a selective impact at the Igκ locus that showed a dramatic skewing of the expressed Igκ repertoire. We found that the REPO domain interacts with proteins from the condensin and cohesin complexes, and that YY1, EZH2 and condensin proteins co-localize at numerous sites across the Ig kappa locus. Knock-down of a condensin subunit protein or YY1 reduced rearrangement of Igκ Vκ genes suggesting a direct role for YY1-condensin complexes in Igκ locus structure and rearrangement.The EMBO Journal 03/2013; DOI:10.1038/emboj.2013.66 · 10.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ig heavy chain (IgH) variable region exons are assembled from V, D, and J gene segments during early B-lymphocyte differentiation. A several megabase region at the "distal" end of the mouse IgH locus (Igh) contains hundreds of VHs, separated by an intergenic region from Igh Ds, JHs, and constant region exons. Diverse primary Igh repertoires are generated by joining Vs, Ds, and Js in different combinations, with a given B cell productively assembling only one combination. The intergenic control region 1 (IGCR1) in the VH-to-D intergenic region regulates Igh V(D)J recombination in the contexts of developmental order, lineage specificity, and feedback from productive rearrangements. IGCR1 also diversifies IgH repertoires by balancing proximal and distal VH use. IGCR1 functions in all these regulatory contexts by suppressing predominant rearrangement of D-proximal VHs. Such IGCR1 functions were neutralized by simultaneous mutation of two CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding elements (CBE1 and CBE2) within it. However, it was unknown whether only one CBE mediates IGCR1 functions or whether both function in this context. To address these questions, we generated mice in which either IGCR1 CBE1 or CBE2 was replaced with scrambled sequences that do not bind CTCF. We found that inactivation of CBE1 or CBE2 individually led to only partial impairment of various IGCR1 functions relative to the far greater effects of inactivating both binding elements simultaneously, demonstrating that they function cooperatively to achieve full IGCR1 regulatory activity. Based on these and other findings, we propose an orientation-specific looping model for synergistic CBE1 and CBE2 functions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2015; 112(6). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1424936112 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relation between alterations in chromatin structure and changes in gene expression during cell differentiation has served as a paradigm to understand the link between genome organization and function. Yet, the factors involved and the mechanisms by which the 3D organization of the nucleus is established remain poorly understood. The use of Chromosome Conformation-Capture (3C)-based approaches has resulted in a new appreciation of the role of architectural proteins in the establishment of 3D genome organization. Architectural proteins orchestrate higher-order chromatin organization through the establishment of interactions between regulatory elements across multiple spatial scales. The regulation of these proteins, their interaction with DNA, and their co-occurrence in the genome, may be responsible for the plasticity of 3D chromatin architecture that dictates cell and time-specific blueprints of gene expression.Trends in Cell Biology 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2014.08.003 · 12.31 Impact Factor