The size, shape and controlled dispersity of nanoparticles play a vital role in determining the physical, chemical, optical and electronic properties attributing its applications in environmental, biotechnological and biomedical fields. Various physical and chemical processes have been exploited in the synthesis of several inorganic metal nanoparticles by wet and dry approaches viz., ultraviolet irradiation, aerosol technologies, lithography, laser ablation, ultrasonic fields, and photochemical reduction techniques. However, these methodologies remain expensive and involve the use of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, there is a growing concern for the development of alternative environment friendly and sustainable methods. Increasing awareness towards green chemistry and biological processes has led to a necessity to develop simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly procedures. Phototrophic eukaryotes such as plants, algae, and diatoms and heterotrophic human cell lines and some biocompatible agents have been reported to synthesize greener nanoparticles like cobalt, copper, silver, gold, bimetallic alloys, silica, palladium, platinum, iridium, magnetite and quantum dots. Owing to the diversity and sustainability, the use of phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents for the synthesis of nanomaterials is yet to be fully explored. This review describes the recent advancements in the green synthesis and applications of metal nanoparticles by plants, aquatic autotrophs, human cell lines, biocompatible agents and biomolecules.
"The former two methods are expensive and are associated with the use of toxic substances for reduction and/or stabilization of the metal NPs. Biological methods become an attractive alternative , because it exploits the natural resources such as plant, fungi and microbes, and are believed to be biocompatible  . Among other biological methods for synthesizing NPs, plant extract based synthesis has been recognized to be more advantageous over the other environmentally benign biological process, since it eliminates the elaborate process of maintenance . "
"However, the industrial synthesis of nanoobjects , as for chemical synthesis, is a source of environmental pollution via the numerous chemicals used in their synthesis. Development of new and clean nanotechnology manufacturing approaches which minimize potential environmental and human health risks is a challenge which motivates the scientific community (Guowu et al. 2011; Narayanan and Sakthivel 2011; Korbekandi et al. 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Testing biotransformation capacities of living aquatic microalgae diatoms to naturally synthetize gold nano-particles (AuNP) from gold salts and assessing aftereffects on their viability by microscope observations is a great challenge. In this work, a laboratory experiment was conducted, which aimed to observe (i) directly by transmission electronic and light microscopy and (ii) through indirect measurements (UV-visible spectroscopy) the periphytic freshwater diatom Eolimna minima exposed to gold salts. This work revealed the capacity of E. minima to intracellularly biosynthetize AuNP and to tolerate it. AuNP synthesis appears as a mecha-nism of detoxification to protect diatom from gold salt con-tamination. We also pointed out the risks associated with the spread of diatoms full of AuNP, through the trophic web of freshwater ecosystems. The preponderant part of the diatoms in natural biofilms associated with their position at the basis of the trophic webs in rivers could then make them responsible for the contamination of their consumers (grazer animals) and consequently for the potential release of AuNP through the entire food web.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-4139-x · 2.83 Impact Factor
"Phyconanotechnology has also become one of the prominent fields of research in NPs synthesis (Narayanan and Sakthivel., 2011). Biosynthesis of AgNPs by using Sargassum wightii and their antibacterial effect on isolated pathogens of infected silk worms was reported (Govindaraju et al., 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nano-biotechnology is an undoubtedly future generation technology which offers potential applications in multidisciplinary areas of science and technology. In the present day’s production, stabilization and utilization of nanoparticles is the eliminatory division in modern science receiving immense attention of scientists engaged in different fields of research. A number of metal nanoparticles have been engineered so far; however among these, silver nanoparticles gain more attention because of their unique applications in distinctive fields of biology. This review presents an overview on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles; role of phytochemical constituents in reduction of silver nanoparticles, factors responsible for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their crucial role in control of size and shape etc. The biological applications of phyto-synthesized silver nanoparticles are given in brief which will direct a path for further biological studies in future to make the study more useful for human welfare and benefits.
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