String kernels and high-quality data set for improved prediction of kinked helices in α-helical membrane proteins.
ABSTRACT The reasons for distortions from optimal α-helical geometry are widely unknown, but their influences on structural changes of proteins are significant. Hence, their prediction is a crucial problem in structural bioinformatics. For the particular case of kink prediction, we generated a data set of 132 membrane proteins containing 1014 manually labeled helices and examined the environment of kinks. Our sequence analysis confirms the great relevance of proline and reveals disproportionately high occurrences of glycine and serine at kink positions. The structural analysis shows significantly different solvent accessible surface area mean values for kinked and nonkinked helices. More important, we used this data set to validate string kernels for support vector machines as a new kink prediction method. Applying the new predictor, about 80% of all helices could be correctly predicted as kinked or nonkinked even when focusing on small helical fragments. The results exceed recently reported accuracies of alternative approaches and are a consequence of both the method and the data set.
- SourceAvailable from: Ya-Huei Huang[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have carried out statistical analyses and computer simulations of helical kinks for TM helices in the PDBTM database. About 59 % of 1562 TM helices showed a significant kink, and 38 % of these kinks are associated with prolines in a range of ±4 residues. Our analyses show that helical kinks are more populated in the central region of helices, particularly in the range of 1-3 residues away from the helix center. Among 1,053 helical kinks analyzed, 88 % of kinks are bends (change in helix axis without loss of helical character) and 12 % are disruptions (change in helix axis and loss of helical character). It is found that proline residues tend to cause larger kink angles in helical bends, while this effect is not observed in helical disruptions. A further analysis of these kinked helices suggests that a kinked helix usually has 1-2 broken backbone hydrogen bonds with the corresponding N-O distance in the range of 4.2-8.7 Å, whose distribution is sharply peaked at 4.9 Å followed by an exponential decay with increasing distance. Our main aims of this study are to understand the formation of helical kinks and to predict their structural features. Therefore we further performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations under four simulation scenarios to investigate kink formation in 37 kinked TM helices and 5 unkinked TM helices. The representative models of these kinked helices are predicted by a clustering algorithm, SPICKER, from numerous decoy structures possessing the above generic features of kinked helices. Our results show an accuracy of 95 % in predicting the kink position of kinked TM helices and an error less than 10° in the angle prediction of 71.4 % kinked helices. For unkinked helices, based on various structure similarity tests, our predicted models are highly consistent with their crystal structure. These results provide strong supports for the validity of our method in predicting the structure of TM helices.Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 09/2012; · 3.17 Impact Factor