Article

Augmentative Effects of Fluvoxamine on Duloxetine Plasma Levels in Depressed Patients

Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen , Germany.
Pharmacopsychiatry (Impact Factor: 2.17). 11/2011; 44(7):317-23. DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1284426
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Duloxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake with weak activity on dopamine reuptake. Enzymes involved in duloxetine metabolism are cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYP) CYP1A2 and to a lesser extent CYP2D6 whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Fluvoxamine is known to be a potent inhibitor of CYP1A2. Changes in plasma levels of duloxetine revealing pharmacokinetic interactions with fluvoxamine, clinical effects and adverse effects of adding fluvoxamine in thirteen patients with a steady-state duloxetine treatment by intraindividual comparisons were analyzed in this retrospective survey. Patients had been treated with duloxetine under steady-state conditions until fluvoxamine was added. Plasma duloxetine levels were measured at steady state of different daily doses due to lacking experience with the combination of DLX and FLX. Adding 25 mg of fluvoxamine (FLX) per day to a steady-state treatment with 30 mg of duloxetine (DLX) in 8 patients led to an average increase of duloxetine plasma levels that was 3-fold with a magnitude of 50-506%. Our findings indicate that duloxetine plasma levels can be enhanced by a potent CYP1A2 inhibition by FLX and that DLX, even in higher plasma levels, seems to be well tolerated. The use of combined treatments, however, underscores the importance of understanding pharmacokinetic interactions.

0 Followers
 · 
68 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because the irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine (TCP) was introduced nearly 50 years ago, only few studies exist on today's clinical prescribing practice together with 2nd and 3rd generation psychotropic drugs. We performed a practice-based observational study of patients with depression treated with TCP in two psychiatric departments in Berlin to assess side effects, effectiveness, comedication and acceptance of the low-tyramine diet. We identified thirty-two patients treated with TCP at a mean dose of 51.9 mg/day after an average of 3.3 pre-treatments in the current episode. Dosing of TCP and the use of multiple psychotropic comedications indicate a high-intensity treatment. The most frequent side effects resulted from arterial hypotonia (28%). Dietary restrictions were mainly rated as moderate. 59% of patients remitted (HAMD- (21)<9 or CGI-I=1) and 22% responded (HAMD- (21) reduction >50% or CGI-I=2). A high-intensity treatment of inpatients with TCP is clinically feasible, i.e., the use of high doses and multiple comedications with a good benefit-risk-ratio. Prospective data aiming at comparisons with modern antidepressants and clarifying further safety issues are warranted.
    Pharmacopsychiatry 12/2008; 41(6):252-7. DOI:10.1055/s-0028-1083819 · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A meta-analysis of the efficacy and tolerability of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) against tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in depressed patients was carried out. Efficacy data from 102 randomised controlled trials (10706 patients) were pooled to provide a summary variance-weighted effect size. Tolerability data from 95 studies (10553 patients) were combined to give variance-weighted relative risk of drop out for all reasons and for adverse effects from each study. The effect of age, treatment setting, severity and TCA dose were examined as well as the performance of individual SSRIs and TCAs where there were sufficient studies. There is no overall difference in efficacy between SSRIs and TCAs (effect size -0.03, 95% confidence interval -0.09 to 0.03). TCAs do appear more effective in in-patients (-0.23, -0.40 to -0.05) and amitriptyline is more effective than SSRI comparators (-0.14, -0.25 to -0.03) but publication bias cannot be excluded. The SSRIs are better tolerated, with significantly lower rates of treatment discontinuations overall (relative risk 0.88, 0.83 to 0.93; number needed to treat 26) and due to side effects (0.73, 0.67 to 0.80; number needed to treat 33). Individual SSRIs show a similar advantage except for fluvoxamine which does not differ from the TCAs. Individual TCAs show a similar disadvantage in tolerability compared to SSRIs except for dothiepin against which SSRI treatment results in more side-effect related drop outs (2.64, 1.50 to 4.63; number needed to harm 12). Limitations: The evidence is from short-term studies and subgroup analyses may result in chance results. Overall efficacy between the two classes is comparable but SSRIs are not proven to be as effective as TCAs in in-patients and against amitriptyline. SSRIs have a modest advantage in terms of tolerability against most TCAs.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2000; 58(1):19-36. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(99)00092-0 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy. It enables the clinician to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. In psychiatry, TDM is an established procedure for lithium, some antidepressants and antipsychotics. In spite of its obvious advantages, however, the use of TDM in everyday clinical practice is far from optimal. The interdisciplinary TDM group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) has therefore worked out consensus guidelines to assist psychiatrists and laboratories involved in psychotropic drug analysis to optimise the use of TDM of psychotropic drugs. Five research-based levels of recommendation were defined with regard to routine monitoring of plasma concentrations for dose titration of 65 psychoactive drugs: (1) strongly recommended, (2) recommended, (3) useful, (4) probably useful and (5) not recommended. A second approach defined indications to use TDM, e. g. control of compliance, lack of clinical response or adverse effects at recommended doses, drug interactions, pharmacovigilance programs, presence of a genetic particularity concerning the drug metabolism, children, adolescents and elderly patients. Indications for TDM are relevant for all drugs either with or without validated therapeutic ranges. When studies on therapeutic ranges are lacking, target ranges should be plasma concentrations that are normally observed at therapeutic doses of the drug. Therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations that are considered to be optimal for treatment are proposed for those drugs, for which the evaluation of the literature demonstrated strong evidence. Moreover, situations are defined when pharmacogenetic (phenotyping or genotyping) tests are informative in addition to TDM. Finally, practical instructions are given how to use TDM. They consider preparation of TDM, analytical procedures, reporting and interpretation of results and the use of information for patient treatment. Using the consensus guideline will help to ensure optimal clinical benefit of TDM in psychiatry.
    Pharmacopsychiatry 12/2004; 37(6):243-65. DOI:10.1055/s-2004-832687 · 2.17 Impact Factor