Photodynamic therapy for chronic periodontitis.
ABSTRACT Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, CENTRAL, UK National Research Register, ISI Proceedings, hand search of relevant journals for 2000-2008. References from selected articles and contact with authors.
Randomised controlled trials in any language comparing scaling and root planing (SRP) alone and SRP with PDT in patients with chronic periodontitis, with a mean follow up of at least 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in clinical attachment loss (CAL). Secondary outcomes were changes in probing depth (PD) and gingival recession (GR).
Data were extracted by a single reviewer using a standard extraction form. Quality was assessed using both the Jadad scale and the allocation concealment component of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was conducted using the random effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the chi-squared-based Q statistic method and Higgins' I(2) test.
Four trials with 101 participants were included. The risk of bias of these trials was considered to be moderate. The mean difference in CAL at 12 weeks was 0.29 mm (95% CI 0.08-0.50, p=0.007). Heterogeneity was high using both the Chi(2) and I(2) tests.
The review suggests there may be a minor improvement in clinical attachment loss at 12 weeks. It is unclear whether this is a clinically meaningful improvement.
SourceAvailable from: Yoshimi Niwano[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37871. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037871 · 3.53 Impact Factor
Article: Adenotonsillar disease.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adenotonsillar disease (adenoiditis and recurrent tonsillitis) is a prevalent otolaryngologic disorder aetiologically based on chronic inflammation triggered by a persistent bacterial infection. These bacteria, mostly Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus sp., and Streptococcus sp., persist predominantly intracellular and within mucosal biofilms. The recurrent or chronic inflammation of the adenoids and faucial tonsils leads to chronic activation of the cell-mediated and humoral immune response, resulting in hypertrophy of the lymphoid tonsillar tissue. This hypertrophic tissue is the cause for the prominent clinical symptoms: obstruction of the upper airways, snoring, and sleep apnea for adenoiditis or sore throat, dysphagia and halitosis for recurrent tonsillitis. Treatment strategies should target the persisting bacteria within their biofilm or intracellular shelter. Macrolide antibiotics like clarithromycin are able to modulate the immune system and to interfere in bacterial signaling within biofilms. Clindamycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and oritavancin are intracellular high active compounds. Surgical removal of the hypertrophic tissue by modern procedures like laser tonsil ablation, eliminates not only a mechanical obstacle of the airways, it removes also the basis for the aetiologic cause, the "biofilm carrier". This review summarizes the role of bacterial persistence in mucosal biofilms for the aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of adenotonsillar disease and relevant patents.Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery 03/2012; 6(2):121-9.