Chronic kidney disease stage 5 as the prognostic complement of International Staging System for multiple myeloma.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.
European Journal Of Haematology (Impact Factor: 2.55). 02/2012; 88(2):159-66. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.2011.01717.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reversal of renal impairment (RI) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) has been evaluated using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR(MDRD) ) formula developed by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study group. However, the prognostic impact of eGFR(MDRD) at diagnosis of MM is not well studied, particularly its use in conjunction with the International Staging System (ISS).
Newly diagnosed patients with MM were enrolled between 1996 and 2007. Data on clinical features, laboratory tests, and overall survival were compared in terms of corresponding eGFR(MDRD).
A total of 387 patients with MM (median age, 71 yr) were enrolled. At diagnosis, 56% had ISS stage III disease; the median values of serum creatinine (SCr) and eGFR(MDRD) were 1.4 mg/dL and 38.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , respectively. Thirty-four percent of patients had SCr of ≥ 2.0 mg/dL, and 81.2% had chronic kidney disease stages 3-5 (CKD 3-5). Higher CKD stages were significantly more common in men, older patients (≥ 65 yr), and those with Durie-Salmon and ISS stage III, light-chain diseases, anemia, thrombocytopenia, hypercalcemia, elevated serum β(2) microglobulin, or lactate dehydrogenase. In the Cox regression model, CKD 4-5 or CKD 5 alone was independently associated with poor survival. A diagnosis of CKD 5 was shown to be useful in identifying the subgroup of ISS-III patients at high risk - those with a median overall survival of 7.2 months.
Our study demonstrates the prognostic impact of eGFR(MDRD) in patients with MM and CKD 5 as the ISS-independent surrogate predictor of poorest prognosis.

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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is present in approximately 10% of patients at diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with increased risks of adverse events caused by novel antimyeloma agents. However, the impact of type 2 diabetes on the survival of patients with MM has not been studied. We enrolled newly diagnosed patients with MM in Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 1999 and 2007 and identified those with pre-existing diabetes. The impact of pre-existing diabetes on patients with MM was evaluated by comparing clinical features, treatments and adverse reactions related to glycaemic control and overall survival (OS) of patients with and without pre-existing diabetes. Of 310 patients with MM, 73% were men and 40 (12.9%) had pre-existing diabetes. Compared with their non-diabetic counterparts, MM patients with pre-existing diabetes had a significantly higher proportion of renal impairment [(RI), serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL] and International Staging System stage III at diagnosis, and a significantly lower proportion of bisphosphonate use and a lower rate of RI reversal (P = 0.087). During the course of the disease, hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia of any grade were noted in 23 (67.6%) and 6 (17.6%) of these patients, respectively. Antidiabetic therapy was changed in 10 (29.4%) of 34 evaluable patients. MM patients with pre-existing diabetes had a significantly higher all-cause mortality risk (hazard ratio, 1.509; 95% confidence interval, 1.023-2.225, P = 0.037) compared with their non-diabetic counterparts. Our study demonstrated the impact of pre-existing diabetes on clinical features and OS in patients with MM.
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