Alcohol/Drug Exposure, HIV-Related Sexual Risk Among Urban American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Evidence From a National Survey
ABSTRACT Migration of the native populations from reservations to the urban areas has resulted in mixed ethnicities of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN) children. Minority youth require special attention and services in urban schools as they disproportionately experience poverty, low educational attainment, unemployment, and single-parent status.
We used 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data to examine alcohol/drug use patterns and their association with sexual risk taking among AIAN only (single-racial) and biracial youth in combination with White, African American, or Hispanic ethnicities (N = 1178).
Overall, one half of the students were sexually active, with significantly higher rates among males; AIAN-Black students initiated sex earlier than the other groups. Condom nonuse is higher among AIAN-Whites (>50%) compared to one third of AIAN-Hispanics and one fourth of AIAN-Blacks. Nearly 10% of all students, except AIAN-Blacks, reported lifetime use of heroin/meth. Sexual behavior was significantly associated with episodic drinking. Students with Hispanic background have twice the odds of being sexually active compared to AIANs.
Our findings underscore growing health care needs and targeted prevention initiatives for mixed racial underserved native youth. Urban school settings have potential to deliver services and offer alcohol/drug prevention programs to address the needs of mixed racial native urban youth. Using the School Based Health Clinic model has been successful; we need to reform prevention approaches to accommodate needs of multiracial urban native youth.
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ABSTRACT: Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems.Social Science Research 11/2013; 42(6):1467-1479. DOI:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2013.06.007 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a biennial, self-administered, school-based survey of US students in grades 9-12 (N = 27,912). Prevalence estimates and logistic regression, controlling for sex and grade, were used to examine the associations between race/ethnicity, and substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Of the 26 variables studied, the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were higher among AI/AN than White students for 18 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 2.3), higher among AI/AN than Black students for 13 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 4.2), and higher among AI/AN than Hispanic students for 5 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 1.5). Odds were lower among AI/AN than Black students for many of the sexual risk-related behaviors. The data suggest it is necessary to develop targeted, adolescent-specific interventions aimed at reducing behaviors that put AI/AN high school students at risk for teen pregnancy, STI/HIV, and other health conditions.Journal of School Health 01/2014; 84(1):25-32. DOI:10.1111/josh.12114 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to explore factors that influence urban adolescent American Indian (AI) girls' sexual risk behavior. A qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory methodology to reveal factors and processes that influence sexual risk behavior. Talking circles, individual interviews, and event history calendars were used with 20 urban AI 15- to 19-year-old girls to explore influences on sexual risk behavior. The generated theory-framing sexual risk behavior-describes social and structural factors and processes that influenced the girls' sexual risk behavior. The theory extends Bronfenbrenner's ecological model by identifying microsystem, mesosystem, and macrosystem influences on sexual risk behavior. Urban AI girls reported similar social and structural influences on sexual risk behavior as urban adolescents from other racial and ethnic groups. However, differences were noted in the family structure, cultural heritage, and unique history of AIs. This theory can be used in culturally responsive practice with urban AI girls.Journal of Transcultural Nursing 05/2014; DOI:10.1177/1043659614524789 · 0.83 Impact Factor