Alcohol/Drug Exposure, HIV-Related Sexual Risk Among Urban American Indian and Alaska Native Youth: Evidence From a National Survey
ABSTRACT Migration of the native populations from reservations to the urban areas has resulted in mixed ethnicities of American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN) children. Minority youth require special attention and services in urban schools as they disproportionately experience poverty, low educational attainment, unemployment, and single-parent status.
We used 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data to examine alcohol/drug use patterns and their association with sexual risk taking among AIAN only (single-racial) and biracial youth in combination with White, African American, or Hispanic ethnicities (N = 1178).
Overall, one half of the students were sexually active, with significantly higher rates among males; AIAN-Black students initiated sex earlier than the other groups. Condom nonuse is higher among AIAN-Whites (>50%) compared to one third of AIAN-Hispanics and one fourth of AIAN-Blacks. Nearly 10% of all students, except AIAN-Blacks, reported lifetime use of heroin/meth. Sexual behavior was significantly associated with episodic drinking. Students with Hispanic background have twice the odds of being sexually active compared to AIANs.
Our findings underscore growing health care needs and targeted prevention initiatives for mixed racial underserved native youth. Urban school settings have potential to deliver services and offer alcohol/drug prevention programs to address the needs of mixed racial native urban youth. Using the School Based Health Clinic model has been successful; we need to reform prevention approaches to accommodate needs of multiracial urban native youth.
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ABSTRACT: We describe the prevalence of behaviors that put American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) high school students at risk for teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and the relationships among race/ethnicity and these behaviors. We analyzed merged 2007 and 2009 data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a biennial, self-administered, school-based survey of US students in grades 9-12 (N = 27,912). Prevalence estimates and logistic regression, controlling for sex and grade, were used to examine the associations between race/ethnicity, and substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Of the 26 variables studied, the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were higher among AI/AN than White students for 18 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 2.3), higher among AI/AN than Black students for 13 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 4.2), and higher among AI/AN than Hispanic students for 5 variables (ranging from 1.4 to 1.5). Odds were lower among AI/AN than Black students for many of the sexual risk-related behaviors. The data suggest it is necessary to develop targeted, adolescent-specific interventions aimed at reducing behaviors that put AI/AN high school students at risk for teen pregnancy, STI/HIV, and other health conditions.Journal of School Health 01/2014; 84(1):25-32. DOI:10.1111/josh.12114 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: National rates from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted disease (STD) surveillance may not effectively convey the impact of HIV and STDs on American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. Instead, we compared average annual diagnosis rates per 100,000 population of HIV, chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC), and primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis, from 2007 to 2010, among AI/AN aged ≥13 years residing in 625 counties in the 12 Indian Health Service Areas, all AI/AN, and all races/ethnicities to address this gap. AI/AN comprised persons reported as AI/AN only, with or without Hispanic ethnicity. Out of 12 IHS Areas, 10 had higher case rates for CT, 3 for GC, and 4 for P&S syphilis compared to rates for all races/ethnicities. Eight Areas had higher HIV diagnosis rates than for all AI/AN, but HIV rates for all IHS Areas were lower than national rates for all races/ethnicities. Two IHS Areas ranking highest in rates of CT and GC and four Areas with highest P&S syphilis also had high HIV rates. STD and HIV rates among AI/AN were greater in certain IHS Areas than expected from observing national rates for AI/AN. Integrated surveillance of overlapping trends in STDs and HIV may be useful in guiding prevention efforts for AI/AN populations.Journal of Community Health 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10900-014-9961-4 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems.Social Science Research 11/2013; 42(6):1467-1479. DOI:10.1016/j.ssresearch.2013.06.007 · 1.27 Impact Factor