GABAergic precursor transplantation into the prefrontal cortex prevents phencyclidine-induced cognitive deficits.
ABSTRACT Phencyclidine (PCP) is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, and it induces schizophreniform cognitive deficits in healthy humans and similar cognitive deficits in rodents. Although the PCP-induced cognitive deficits appear to be accompanied and possibly caused by dysfunction of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), the potential benefit(s) of GABAergic interneuron manipulations on PCP-induced cognitive deficits remains unexplored. In this study we show that when embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) cells, many of which differentiate into cortical GABAergic interneurons in situ, were grafted into the medial PFC (mPFC) of neonatal mice, they differentiated into a specific class of GABAergic interneurons and became functionally integrated into the host neuronal circuitry in adults. Prior MGE cell transplantation into the mPFC significantly prevented the induction of cognitive and sensory-motor gating deficits by PCP. The preventive effects were not reproduced by either transplantation of cortical projection neuron precursors into the mPFC or transplantation of MGE cells into the occipital cortex. The preventive effects of MGE cell transplantation into the mPFC were accompanied by activation of callosal projection neurons in the mPFC. These findings suggest that increasing GABAergic interneuron precursors in the PFC may contribute to the development of a cell-based approach as a novel means of modulating the PFC neuronal circuitry and preventing schizophreniform cognitive deficits.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy is well proposed as a potential method for the improvement of neurodegenerative damage in the brain. Among several different procedures to reach the cells into the injured lesion, the intravenous (IV) injection has benefit as a minimally invasive approach. However, for the brain disease, prompt development of the effective treatment way of cellular biodistribution of stem cells into the brain after IV injection is needed. Atelocollagen has been used as an adjunctive material in a gene, drug and cell delivery system because of its extremely low antigenicity and bioabsorbability to protect these transplants from intrabody environment. However, there is little work about the direct effect of atelocollagen on stem cells, we examined the functional change of survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation of cultured neural stem cells (NSCs) induced by atelocollagen in vitro. By 72-h treatment 0.01-0.05 % atelocollagen showed no significant effects on survival, proliferation and migration of NSCs, while 0.03-0.05 % atelocollagen induced significant reduction of neuronal differentiation and increase of astrocytic differentiation. Furthermore, IV treated NSCs complexed with atelocollagen (0.02 %) could effectively migrate into the brain rather than NSC treated alone using chronic alcohol binge model rat. These experiments suggested that high dose of atelocollagen exerts direct influence on NSC function but under 0.03 % of atelocollagen induces beneficial effect on regenerative approach of IV administration of NSCs for CNS disease.Journal of Neural Transmission 04/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Inhibitory synapse dysfunction may contribute to many developmental brain disorders, including the secondary consequences of sensory deprivation. In fact, developmental hearing loss leads to a profound reduction in the strength of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the auditory cortex, and this deficit persists into adulthood. This finding is consistent with the general theory that the emergence of mature synaptic properties requires activity during development. Therefore, we tested the prediction that inhibitory strength can be restored following developmental hearing loss by boosting GABAergic transmission in vivo. Conductive or sensorineural hearing loss was induced surgically in gerbils prior to hearing onset and GABA agonists were then administered for one week. IPSCs were subsequently recorded from pyramidal neurons in a thalamocortical brain slice preparation. Administration of either a GABA(A) receptor a1 subunit specific agonist (zolpidem), or a selective GABA reuptake inhibitor (SGRI), rescued IPSC amplitude in hearing loss animals. Furthermore, this restoration persisted in adults, long after drug treatment ended. In contrast, a GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen did not restore inhibitory strength. IPSCs could also be restored when SGRI administration began 3 weeks after sensory deprivation. Together, these results demonstrate long-lasting restoration of cortical inhibitory strength in the absence of normal experience. This suggests that in vivo GABA(A) receptor activation is sufficient to promote maturation, and this principle may extend to other developmental disorders associated with diminished inhibitory function.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53438. · 3.73 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) has been previously shown to have cognition-enhancing effects. The role of neurotransmitter changes, measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, may inform the mechanisms for this response. OBJECTIVE To examine the neurochemical effects of GHRH in a subset of participants from the parent trial. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled substudy of a larger trial. SETTING Clinical research unit at the University of Washington School of Medicine. PARTICIPANTS Thirty adults (17 with mild cognitive impairment [MCI]), ranging in age from 55 to 87 years, were enrolled and successfully completed the study. INTERVENTIONS Participants self-administered daily subcutaneous injections of tesamorelin (Theratechnologies Inc), a stabilized analogue of human GHRH (1 mg/d), or placebo 30 minutes before bedtime for 20 weeks. At baseline and weeks 10 and 20, participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy protocols and cognitive testing and provided blood samples after fasting. Participants also underwent glucose tolerance tests before and after intervention. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Brain levels of glutamate, inhibitory transmitters γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and N -acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), and myo -inositol (MI), an osmolyte linked to Alzheimer disease in humans, were measured in three 2 × 2 × 2-cm3 left-sided brain regions (dorsolateral frontal, posterior cingulate, and posterior parietal). Glutamate, GABA, and MI levels were expressed as ratios to creatine plus phosphocreatine, and NAAG was expressed as a ratio to N -acetylaspartate. RESULTS After 20 weeks of GHRH administration, GABA levels were increased in all brain regions (P < .04), NAAG levels were increased (P = .03) in the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and MI levels were decreased in the posterior cingulate (P = .002). These effects were similar in adults with MCI and older adults with normal cognitive function. No changes in the brain levels of glutamate were observed. In the posterior cingulate, treatment-related changes in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 were positively correlated with changes in GABA (r = 0.47; P = .001) and tended to be negatively correlated with MI (r = -0.34; P = .06). Consistent with the results of the parent trial, a favorable treatment effect on cognition was observed in substudy participants (P = .03). No significant associations were observed between treatment-related changes in neurochemical and cognitive outcomes. Glucose homeostasis in the periphery was not reliably affected by GHRH administration and did not account for treatment neurochemical effects. CONCLUSIONS Twenty weeks of GHRH administration increased GABA levels in all 3 brain regions, increased NAAG levels in the frontal cortex, and decreased MI levels in the posterior cingulate. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that 20 weeks of somatotropic supplementation modulates inhibitory neurotransmitter and brain metabolite levels in a clinical trial, and it provides preliminary support for one possible mechanism to explain favorable GHRH effects on cognition in adults with MCI and in healthy older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00257712.JAMA neurology. 05/2013;