Erratum: In vivo flow cytometry of circulating clots using negative photothermal and photoacoustic contrasts

Phillips Classic Laser and Nanomedicine Laboratories, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.
Cytometry Part A (Impact Factor: 2.93). 10/2011; 79(10):814-24. DOI: 10.1002/cyto.a.21106
Source: PubMed


Conventional photothermal (PT) and photoacousic (PA) imaging, spectroscopy, and cytometry are preferentially based on positive PT/PA effects, when signals are above background. Here, we introduce PT/PA technique based on detection of negative signals below background. Among various new applications, we propose label-free in vivo flow cytometry of circulating clots. No method has been developed for the early detection of clots of different compositions as a source of thromboembolism including ischemia at strokes and myocardial infarction. When a low-absorbing, platelet-rich clot passes a laser-irradiated vessel volume, a transient decrease in local absorption results in an ultrasharp negative PA hole in blood background. Using this phenomenon alone or in combination with positive contrasts, we demonstrated identification of white, red, and mixed clots on a mouse model of myocardial infarction and human blood. The concentration and size of clots were measured with threshold down to few clots in the entire circulation with size as low as 20 μm. This multiparameter diagnostic platform using portable personal high-speed flow cytometer with negative dynamic contrast mode has potential to real-time defining risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, and for prognosis and prevention of stroke or use clot count as a marker of therapy efficacy. Possibility for label-free detection of platelets, leukocytes, tumor cells or targeting themby negative PA probes (e.g., nonabsorbing beads or bubbles) is also highlighted.

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Available from: Dmitry A Nedosekin, Oct 03, 2015
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    • "During the formation of RBC aggregates, the sizes of the clusters can increase up to ~10 times the size of the individual RBCs and significantly impair the microcirculation [4]. Recently, Galanzha and colleagues have shown experimentally, by monitoring the PA signal trace dynamics obtained with PA fluctuation flow cytometry, that large increases in the PA signal are measured in vessels with pathological conditions leading to RBC aggregation [27,28]. This finding is consistent with the theoretical and experimental findings of this study. "
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    ABSTRACT: The feasibility of detecting red blood cell (RBC) aggregation with photoacoustics (PAs) was investigated theoretically and experimentally using human and porcine RBCs. The theoretical PA signals and spectra generated from such samples were examined for several hematocrit levels and aggregates sizes. The effect of a finite transducer bandwidth on the received PA signal was also examined. The simulation results suggest that the dominant frequency of the PA signals from non-aggregated RBCs decreases towards clinical frequency ranges as the aggregate size increases. The experimentally measured mean spectral power increased by ~6 dB for the largest aggregate compared to the non-aggregated samples. Such results confirm the theoretical predictions and illustrate the potential of using PA imaging for detecting RBC aggregation.
    Biomedical Optics Express 09/2012; 3(9):2326-2338. DOI:10.1364/BOE.3.002326 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Flow cytometry (FCM) has been a fundamental tool of biological discovery for many years. Invasive extraction of cells from a living organism, however, may lead to changes in cell properties and prevents studying cells in their native environment. These problems can be overcome by use of in vivo FCM, which provides detection and imaging of circulating normal and abnormal cells directly in blood or lymph flow. The goal of this review is to provide a brief history, features, and challenges of this new generation of FCM methods and instruments. Spectrum of possibilities of in vivo FCM in biological science (e.g., cell metabolism, immune function, or apoptosis) and medical fields (e.g., cancer, infection, and cardiovascular disorder) including integrated photoacoustic-photothermal theranostics of circulating abnormal cells are discussed with focus on recent advances of this new platform.
    Cytometry Part A 10/2011; 79(10):737-45. DOI:10.1002/cyto.a.21143 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional flow cytometry using scattering and fluorescent detection methods has been a fundamental tool of biological discoveries for many years. Invasive extraction of cells from a living organism, however, may lead to changes in cell properties and prevents the long-term study of cells in their native environment. Here, we summarize recent advances of new generation flow cytometry for in vivo noninvasive label-free or targeted detection of cells in blood, lymph, bone, cerebral and plant vasculatures using photoacoustic (PA) detection techniques, multispectral high-pulse-repetition-rate lasers, tunable ultrasharp (up to 0.8 nm) rainbow plasmonic nanoprobes, positive and negative PA contrasts, in vivo magnetic enrichment, time-of-flight cell velocity measurement, PA spectral analysis, and integration of PA, photothermal (PT), fluorescent, and Raman methods. Unique applications of this tool are reviewed with a focus on ultrasensitive detection of normal blood cells at different functional states (e.g., apoptotic and necrotic) and rare abnormal cells including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cancer stem cells, pathogens, clots, sickle cells as well as pharmokinetics of nanoparticles, dyes, microbubbles and drug nanocarriers. Using this tool we discovered that palpation, biopsy, or surgery can enhance CTC release from primary tumors, increasing the risk of metastasis. The novel fluctuation flow cytometry provided the opportunity for the dynamic study of blood rheology including red blood cell aggregation and clot formation in different medical conditions (e.g., blood disorders, cancer, or surgery). Theranostics, as a combination of PA diagnosis and PT nanobubble-amplified multiplex therapy, was used for eradication of CTCs, purging of infected blood, and thrombolysis of clots using PA guidance to control therapy efficiency. In vivo flow cytometry using a portable fiber-based devices can provide a breakthrough platform for early diagnosis of cancer, infection and cardiovascular disorders with a potential to inhibit, if not prevent, metastasis, sepsis, and strokes or heart attack by well-timed personalized therapy.
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