A Broad Range of Ophthalmologic Anomalies Is Part of the Holoprosencephaly Spectrum
ABSTRACT Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is the most common disorder of the developing forebrain in humans, and is characterized by failed or incomplete cleavage of the cerebral hemispheres and deep brain structures. HPE includes wide phenotypic variability, with a continuum of both brain and craniofacial anomalies. While "classic" eye findings, including the spectrum of midline anomalies ranging from cyclopia to hypotelorism, as well as chorioretinal coloboma and microphthalmia, have been frequently described in patients with HPE, other subtle eye anomalies may also occur. In our study we prospectively analyzed a small cohort of 10 patients in whom we identified mutations in SHH, SIX3, ZIC2, or FGF8, the latter of which is a very recently described HPE-associated gene. We found that 9 of 10 patients had at least two ophthalmologic anomalies, including refractive errors, microcornea, microphthalmia, blepharoptosis, exotropia, and uveal coloboma. These findings contribute to the understanding of the phenotypic variability of the HPE spectrum, and highlight findings in one medically important but often incompletely investigated system.
SourceAvailable from: Donald W HadleyAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2012; 158A(5):1244-1245. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.35207 · 2.05 Impact Factor
Journal of Genetics 04/2013; 92(1):97-101. DOI:10.1007/s12041-013-0215-5 · 1.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a spectrum of midline malformations of the prosencephalon generally reflected in a continuum of midline facial anomalies. Patients with mutation in the ZIC2 gene usually present a normal or mildly dysmorphic face associated with a severe brain malformation. Here we present a rare unilateral nasal cleft (Tessier cleft n. 1) with holoprosencephaly in a patient with a ZIC2 mutation. The male newborn presented with alobar HPE, microcephaly, ocular hypertelorism, upslanting palpebral fissures, a bulky nose with a left paramedian alar cleft. Mutational screening for HPE genes revealed the occurrence of a frameshift mutation in the ZIC2 gene. The mutation was inherited from the father who presented only mild ocular hypotelorism but had an affected child with HPE from his first marriage. The occurrence of oral clefts is common in patients with HPE, but unusual in patients with mutation in the ZIC2 gene. To our knowledge, clefts of the nasal alae have been reported only once or twice in patients with ZIC2 mutations. In documented patients from the literature, only 2% of individuals with described pathogenic mutations in the ZIC2 gene (3/171) presented facial clefts, one of them a nasal cleft, while common oral clefts were observed in 27% of individuals (7/26) described with nonpathogenic ZIC2 mutations or presenting a concomitant mutation in another HPE gene. When compared with the general population, nasal clefts are common in ZIC2 mutations and these mutations must be searched for in undiagnosed cases. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Birth Defects Research Part A Clinical and Molecular Teratology 04/2014; 100(4). DOI:10.1002/bdra.23216 · 2.21 Impact Factor