We surveyed physicians about their ability to provide high-quality care to patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Primarily, we wanted to explore the challenges faced by physicians treating Latino patients compared to physicians whose patients were primarily white and non-Latino. We found that physicians treating Latinos, particularly those who worked in primary care in comparison to specialists, were less likely than physicians treating primarily white patients to believe in their ability to provide high-quality care. They cited problems of inadequate time with patients, patients' ability to pay, patients' nonadherence to recommended treatment, difficulties communicating with patients, relative lack of specialist availability, and lack of timely transmission of reports among physicians. Insurance expansions and complementary reforms mandated by the Affordable Care Act of 2010 and other recent legislation should aid physicians in closing some of these gaps in quality.
"To reduce the former type of racial disparities, efforts to improve patient-physician communication and to enhance “patient-centered” care during the clinical encounter are recommended. These efforts include physician cultural competency training, expansions in the numbers of minority physicians in the hospital, hospital’s adoption of patient-centered information technology, and hospital’s efforts to improve effective communication and to promote “communities of care” [45,50-53]. To reduce latter type of racial disparities, interventions to improve performance of particular hospitals which served disproportionately high concentrations of minority patients but provided suboptimal quality of care are needed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Racial disparities in healthcare in the United States are widespread and have been well documented. However, it is unknown whether racial disparities exist in the use of blood transfusion for patients undergoing major surgery.
We used the University HealthSystem Consortium database (2009-2011) to examine racial disparities in perioperative red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG), total hip replacement (THR), and colectomy. We estimated multivariable logistic regressions to examine whether black patients are more likely than white patients to receive perioperative RBC transfusion, and to investigate potential sources of racial disparities.
After adjusting for patient-level factors, black patients were more likely to receive RBC transfusions for CABG (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI: [1.13, 1.76], p = 0.002) and THR (AOR = 1.39, 95% CI: [1.20, 1.62], p < 0.001), but not for colectomy (AOR = 1.08, 95% CI: [0.90, 1.30], p = 0.40). Black-white disparities in blood transfusion persisted after controlling for patient insurance and hospital effects (CABG: AOR = 1.42, 95% CI: [1.30, 1.56], p < 0.001; THR: AOR = 1.43, 95% CI: [1.29, 1.58], p < 0.001).
We detected racial disparities in the use of blood transfusion for CABG and THR (black patients tended to receive more transfusions compared with whites), but not for colectomy. Reporting racial disparities in contemporary transfusion practices may help reduce potentially unnecessary blood transfusions in minority patients.
BMC Health Services Research 03/2014; 14(1):121. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-121 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CONTEXT: Understanding cancer patients' preferences in decisional roles is important in providing quality care and ensuring patient satisfaction. There is a lack of evidence on decisional control preferences (DCPs) of Hispanic Americans, the fastest growing population in the U.S. OBJECTIVES: The primary aims of this study were to describe DCPs of Hispanics with advanced cancer in the U.S. (HUSs) and compare the frequency of passive DCP in this population with that of Hispanics with advanced cancer in Latin America (HLAs). METHODS: We conducted a prospective survey of patients with advanced cancer referred to outpatient palliative care clinics in the U.S., Chile, Argentina, and Guatemala. Information was collected on sociodemographic variables, Karnofsky Performance Scale scores, acculturation (Marin Acculturation Assessment Tool), and DCP (Control Preference Scale). Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences in DCPs between HUSs and HLAs. RESULTS: A total of 387 patients were surveyed: 91 in the U.S., 100 in Chile, 94 in Guatemala, and 99 in Argentina. The median age of HUSs was 56 years, 59% were female, and the median Karnofsky Performance Scale score was 60; the corresponding values for HLAs were 60 years, 60%, and 80. HLAs used passive DCP strategies significantly more frequently than HUSs did with regard to the involvement of the family (24% vs. 10%; P=0.009) or the physician (35% vs. 16%; P<0.001), even after age and education were controlled for. Eighty-three percent of HUSs and 82% of HLAs preferred family involvement in decision making (P=non-significant). No significant differences were found in DCPs between poorly and highly acculturated HUSs (P=0.91). CONCLUSION: HUSs had more active DCPs than HLAs did. Among HUSs, acculturation did not seem to play a role in DCP determination. Our findings confirm the importance of family participation for both HUSs and HLAs. However, HUSs were less likely to want family members to make decisions on their behalf.
Journal of pain and symptom management 11/2012; 46(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2012.08.015 · 2.80 Impact Factor
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