Inappropriate Medication in a National Sample of US Elderly Patients Receiving Home Health Care

Department of Public Health, Weill Cornell Medical College, 402 E. 67th St., New York, NY 10065, USA.
Journal of General Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.42). 10/2011; 27(3):304-10. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-011-1905-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT With substantial morbidity and functional impairment, older patients receiving home health care are especially susceptible to the adverse effects of unsafe or ineffective medications. Home health agencies’ medication review and reconciliation services, however, provide an added mechanism of medication safety that could offset this risk.
To estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) among current elderly home health patients in the US.
Cross-sectional analysis using data from the 2007 National Home and Hospice Care Survey.
3,124 home health patients 65 years of age or older on at least one medication.
Prevalence and classification of PIM use and the association between PIM use and patient and home health agency characteristics.Key Results In 2007, 38% (95% CI: 36-41) of elderly home health patients were taking at least one PIM. Polypharmacy was associated with an increased risk of PIM use; admission to home health care from a nursing home or other sub-acute facility (compared to admission from the community) and a payment source other than Medicare or Medicaid were associated with a decreased risk of PIM use.
The prevalence of PIM use in older home health patients is high despite potential mechanisms for improved safety. Policies to improve the review and reconciliation processes within home health agencies and to improve physician-home health clinician collaboration are likely needed to lower the prevalence of PIM use in older home health patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Background: The frequency of prescribing potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) in older patients remains high despite evidence of adverse outcomes from their use. Little is known about whether admission to hospital has any effect on appropriateness of prescribing. Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and nature of PIMs and explore the association of risk factors for receiving a PIM. Methods: This was a prospective study of 206 patients discharged to residential aged care facilities from acute care. All patients were at least 70 years old and were admitted between July 2005 and May 2010; their admission and discharge medications were evaluated. Results: Mean patient age was 84.8 ± 6.7 years; the majority (57%) were older than 85 years, and mean (SD) Frailty Index was 0.42 (0.15). At least 1 PIM was identified in 112 (54.4%) patients on admission and 102 (49.5%) patients on discharge. Of all medications prescribed at admission (1728), 10.8% were PIMs, and at discharge, of 1759 medications, 9.6% were PIMs. Of the total 187 PIMs on admission, 56 (30%) were stopped and 131 were continued; 32 new PIMs were introduced. Of the potential risk factors considered, in-hospital cognitive decline and frailty status were the only significant predictors of PIMs. Conclusions: Although admission to hospital is an opportunity to review the indications for specific medications, a high prevalence of inappropriate drug use was observed. The only associations with PIM use were the frailty status and in-hospital cognitive decline. Additional studies are needed to further evaluate this association.
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    ABSTRACT: Taiwanese National Health Insurance (TNHI) provides home healthcare services to patients with skilled nursing needs who were homebound or lived in nursing homes. Studies on potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) for older home healthcare service recipients (HHSRs) are growing, but comparisons among newer criteria of PIMs have not been applied. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of PIMs based on three different instruments published after 2010 among older HHSRs. We performed cross-sectional analysis of the TNHI Research Database. A total of 25,187 HHSRs aged more than 65 years in 2009 were included. Medication lists independent of chronic conditions from the 2012 Beers criteria, PIM-Taiwan criteria, and the PRISCUS (Latin for "old and venerable") criteria were used. Analysis was performed separately at patient and clinic-visit level. T-tests, chi-square analysis, and multivariate logistic regressions were used where appropriate. The prevalence of having at least one PIM at patient and clinic-visit level was highest with the Beers (82.67%, 36.14% respectively), followed by the PRISCUS (68.49%, 25.13%) and PIM-Taiwan (63.04%, 19.21%) criteria. At patient level, polypharmacy (odds ratio (OR) 2.53 to 4.90), higher number of clinic (OR 1.15 to 1.41), hospital (OR 1.24 to 1.64), and physician (OR 1.15 to 1.41) visits were associated with PIM use for all 3 sets of criteria. At clinic-visit level, internist/family physicians (OR 1.26 to 1.72) and neurologists/psychiatrists (OR 1.73 to 5.87) were more likely to prescribe PIMs than others. Psychotropic drugs and first generation antihistamines accounted for most of the top ten PIMs. The prevalence of PIMs was high among older Taiwanese HHSRs. Polypharmacy and certain medical specialties were associated with a higher likelihood of PIM prescriptions. Provider education and medication review and reconciliation should be considered.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94350. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094350 · 3.53 Impact Factor

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