Vertebral artery dissection leading to stroke caused by violent neck tics of Tourette syndrome.

Division of Neurology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Neurology (Impact Factor: 8.3). 11/2011; 77(18):1706-8. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318238253c
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may improve disabling tics in severely affected medication and behaviorally resistant Tourette syndrome (TS). Here we review all reported cases of TS DBS and provide updated recommendations for selection, assessment, and management of potential TS DBS cases based on the literature and implantation experience. Candidates should have a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM V) diagnosis of TS with severe motor and vocal tics, which despite exhaustive medical and behavioral treatment trials result in significant impairment. Deep brain stimulation should be offered to patients only by experienced DBS centers after evaluation by a multidisciplinary team. Rigorous preoperative and postoperative outcome measures of tics and associated comorbidities should be used. Tics and comorbid neuropsychiatric conditions should be optimally treated per current expert standards, and tics should be the major cause of disability. Psychogenic tics, embellishment, and malingering should be recognized and addressed. We have removed the previously suggested 25-year-old age limit, with the specification that a multidisciplinary team approach for screening is employed. A local ethics committee or institutional review board should be consulted for consideration of cases involving persons younger than 18 years of age, as well as in cases with urgent indications. Tourette syndrome patients represent a unique and complex population, and studies reveal a higher risk for post-DBS complications. Successes and failures have been reported for multiple brain targets; however, the optimal surgical approach remains unknown. Tourette syndrome DBS, though still evolving, is a promising approach for a subset of medication refractory and severely affected patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette syndrome is a complex neurobehavioral disorder defined by multiple motor and at least 1 vocal tic, persisting over 1 year, waxing and waning in severity, and not explained by another condition. The condition may range from mild nuisance to debilitating and disabling in severity. Management includes counseling and reassurance, behavioral interventions, pharmacologic, and rarely, surgical interventions. Traditionally, alpha-2 agonists and dopamine receptor antagonists have been utilized. In addition, a number of different pharmacotherapies have been implemented in the search for improved management of tics with better tolerability. In rare, severely disabling cases, neuromodulation with deep brain stimulation may be indicated. Optimal brain targets and candidate selection are still in evolution. This article will review the evidence for current medical and surgical therapies with a focus on recent updates.
    Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 07/2014; 14(7):458. DOI:10.1007/s11910-014-0458-4 · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical features and severity of tics and environmental factors influencing tic expression in a cohort of children with tic disorders. We performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of children and adolescents (N = 92) with tic disorders referred to the outpatient clinic of a tertiary-level paediatric centre in Barcelona. The severity of tics was evaluated using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS). A questionnaire including a list of environmental factors and common daily activities that might influence tic occurrence was completed for patients greater than 5 years old. Children were classified as having Tourette syndrome (TS) (52 patients), chronic motor or phonic tics (22 patients) and tics of less than 12 months' duration (18 patients). Tics worsened with stressful situations, activities related to school, playing video games and watching TV. A significant proportion of children reported a reduction in tics while they were concentrating on artistic or creative activities or when playing sports and participating in outdoor activities. The YGTSS scores were higher for TS patients (P < .001) and correlated positively with the time of evolution of tics (r = .273, P = .026). Poor school performance was associated with TS (p = .043) and higher scores on the YGTSS (P = .018), as well as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (P = .007). Several activities of daily living were identified as modifying tic severity in children and may be important clues for tic management. In a subgroup of children with TS, tics were associated with significant morbidity and poor academic performance. Our results emphasise the importance of developing specific school programmes and tailored recommendations in patients with TS.
    European journal of paediatric neurology: EJPN: official journal of the European Paediatric Neurology Society 10/2013; 18(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ejpn.2013.10.002 · 1.93 Impact Factor