Efficacy and safety of aprepitant in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a pooled analysis.
ABSTRACT A number of studies have reported that aprepitant has been used to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. In this study, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of aprepitant, which can provide evidence for aprepitant administration.
Fifteen trials involving patients who received moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy were included in this pooled analysis. Antiemetic drugs in these studies included aprepitant, dexamethasone, and 5-HT3 receptor antagonists.
A total of 4,798 cases were investigated in these clinical trials. Compared with placebo or the standard antiemetic therapy, the cumulative incidence of emesis was significantly reduced in the patients treated with aprepitant-based (125 mg/80 mg) therapy on the first day [relative risk (RR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.16], from 2 to 5 days (RR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.22-1.48) and in the overall 5 days (RR = 1.30, 95% CI 1.22-1.39). In terms of drug safety, there was no significant difference between aprepitant-based regimens and non-aprepitant regimens.
Results from the analysis suggest that aprepitant with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists and dexamethasone is highly effective in preventing nausea and vomiting in the days after administration of moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC or HEC) agents.
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ABSTRACT: In early clinical trials with patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, the neurokinin antagonist aprepitant significantly enhanced the efficacy of a standard antiemetic regimen consisting of a type-three 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist and a corticosteroid. This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study was performed to establish definitively the superiority of the aprepitant regimen versus standard therapy in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Patients receiving cisplatin > or = 70 mg/m2 for the first time were given either standard therapy (ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1; dexamethasone on days 2 to 4) or an aprepitant regimen (aprepitant plus ondansetron and dexamethasone on day 1; aprepitant and dexamethasone on days 2 to 3; dexamethasone on day 4). Patients recorded nausea and vomiting episodes in a diary. The primary end point was complete response (no emesis and no rescue therapy) on days 1 to 5 postcisplatin, analyzed by a modified intent-to-treat approach. Treatment comparisons were made using logistic regression models. Tolerability was assessed by reported adverse events and physical and laboratory assessments. The percentage of patients with complete response on days 1 to 5 was significantly higher in the aprepitant group (72.7% [n = 260] v 52.3% in the standard therapy group [n = 260]), as were the percentages on day 1, and especially on days 2 to 5 (P <.001 for all three comparisons). Compared with standard dual therapy, addition of aprepitant was generally well tolerated and provided consistently superior protection against CINV in patients receiving highly emetogenic cisplatin-based chemotherapy.Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2003; 21(22):4112-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This analysis evaluated whether the antiemetic efficacy of the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant (EMEND trade mark, Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ) plus standard antiemetics could be sustained for up to six cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients receiving cisplatin > or = 70 mg/m2 were blindly assigned to receive one of the following three regimens: (1) aprepitant 375 mg 1 hour before cisplatin on day 1 and aprepitant 250 mg on days 2 to 5 (n = 35); (2) aprepitant 125 mg before cisplatin and aprepitant 80 mg on days 2 to 5 (n = 81); or (3) placebo before cisplatin on days 2 to 5 (n = 86). All groups received ondansetron 32 mg and dexamethasone 20 mg before cisplatin, and dexamethasone 8 mg on days 2 to 5. The primary end point was complete response (no emesis and no rescue therapy) over 5 days following cisplatin in up to six cycles. A cumulative probability analysis using a model for transitional probabilities was used to analyze the data. The aprepitant 375/250-mg regimen was discontinued early in light of new pharmacokinetic data. In the first cycle, 64% of patients in the aprepitant group and 49% in the standard therapy group had a complete response. Thereafter, complete response rates for the aprepitant group were still 59% by cycle 6, but decreased to 34% by cycle 6 for the standard therapy group. Reasons for discontinuation were similar across treatment groups. Compared with patients who received standard therapy, those who received only the aprepitant regimen had better and more sustained protection against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting over multiple cycles.Journal of Clinical Oncology 11/2003; 21(22):4105-11. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors (female gender, younger age, alcohol consumption, history of motion sickness) are the major risk factors for CINV. The use of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists plus dexamethasone has significantly improved the control of acute CINV, but delayed nausea and vomiting remains a significant clinical problem. Although the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and metoclopramide have been used to prevent delayed CINV, only dexamethasone appears to have much efficacy with acceptable toxicity. Recent studies have introduced two new agents, palonosetron and aprepitant, for the prevention of both acute and delayed CINV. Palonosetron is a new 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a longer half life and a higher binding affinity than older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It improves the complete response rate (no emesis, no need for rescue) of acute and delayed CINV in patients receiving moderately emetogenic chemotherapy compared to the older 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The other agent, aprepitant, is the first agent available in the new drug class of neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists. When added to a standard regimen of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and dexamethasone in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, it improves the complete response rate of acute CINV. Aprepitant also improves the complete response of delayed CINV when compared to placebo and when used in combination with dexamethasone compared to dexamethasone alone. Acute and delayed nausea may also be improved by aprepitant when used in combination with a 5-HT3 and dexamethasone prechemotherapy or with daily dosing for 3-5 days following chemotherapy. Based on these studies, new guidelines for the prevention of CINV are proposed. Future studies may consider the use of palonosetron and aprepitant with current and other new agents (olanzapine, gabapentin) in moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, as well in the clinical settings of multiple-day chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.The journal of supportive oncology 1(2):89-103.