Investigation of lipid composition of dissected sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients by 7T proton MR spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT To determine lipid composition of excised healthy and metastatic sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients, as lipids are a potential discriminatory marker for malignancy.
Ten breast cancer patients undergoing surgical nodal staging were included. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic images (MRSI) were acquired without water and lipid suppression (resolution 3.0 × 3.0 × 5.0 mm(3)). MRSI was compared to histopathology. Six groups of lipid resonances (5.4-5.2, 4.3-4.1, 2.8, 2.3-2.0, 1.6-1.3, 0.9 ppm) were identified. The intensity ratios of the total of these resonances to this total including the water resonance and of each lipid resonance to the total of all lipid resonances were determined. For statistical analysis, a mixed model was applied after logistic transformation. The results were expressed as ratios of the median values of these lipid compositions in metastatic to benign nodes.
In all, 6/32 (19%) of the excised nodes contained metastases. The ratios of the lipid resonances 5.4-5.2, 4.3-4.1, 2.8, 2.3-2.0, 1.6-1.3, 0.9 ppm between metastatic vs. benign were 0.3, 1.2, 0.2, 0.2, 1.2, and 0.9, respectively. Only the ratios of signals from unsaturated fatty acids to the total lipid signal differed significantly.
Metastatic axillary lymph nodes contained fewer unsaturated fatty acids than benign nodes. 7T (1)H-MRS may be useful for detecting axillary breast cancer metastases.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the response of lipid olefinic protons (≈ 5.35 ppm) as a function of STEAM (Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode) mixing time (TM), and echo time (TE), to find values that resolve the olefinic resonance from water in vivo while retaining sufficient olefinic signal. PRESS (Point RESolved Spectroscopy) and STEAM experiments with varying timing parameters (TE and also TM for STEAM) were conducted on nine oils (almond, canola, cod liver, corn, linseed, peanut, sesame, sunflower, and walnut oil), and on vertebral bone marrow in vivo at 3 Tesla (T). Olefinic and methylene (methyl + methylene in vivo) peak areas were measured. Optimal STEAM parameters were found to be TM = 20 ms and TE = 100 ms. The STEAM olefinic/methylene area ratios (ranging between 0.1 and 0.4) calculated for each oil correlated well with ratios deduced from oil compositions in the literature (R(2) = 0.975). The optimized STEAM sequence resolved the olefinic peak from water in vivo and yielded on average 1.91 times more olefinic signal compared with a previously optimized PRESS (TE = 200 ms) sequence tailored for the same purpose. Olefinic/(methyl + methylene) area ratios obtained with optimized STEAM and PRESS in vivo were linearly correlated (R(2) = 0.972). A STEAM sequence with TE = 100 ms and TM = 20 ms provides an alternative to the previously optimized PRESS (TE = 200 ms) sequence for determining relative amounts of lipid unsaturation at 3T.J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 12/2013; 41(2). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24532 · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accurate detection of lymph node metastases is critical for many solid tumours in order to guide treatment strategies and determine prognostic outcomes. The gold standard for detection of metastasis is by histological analysis of formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) sections of removed lymph nodes; this analysis method has remained largely unchanged for decades. Recent studies have highlighted limitations in the sensitivity of this approach, at least in its current clinical use, to detect very small metastatic deposits. Importantly the poor prognostic outcomes associated with the presence of such small tumour deposits is now well established in a number of cancers. In addition, histological analysis of FFPE sections cannot be used practically for intraoperative node assessment. Novel lymph node staging technologies are therefore actively being developed. This review critically presents the main advances in this field and discusses why these technologies have not been able to provide a better alternative to the current gold standard diagnostic technique. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 02/2015; 136(4). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28742 · 6.20 Impact Factor
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 08/2014; 40(2). DOI:10.1002/jmri.24444 · 2.57 Impact Factor