After the Black Box Warning: Predictors of Psychotropic Treatment Choices for Older Patients With Dementia
ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with the selection of pharmacological treatments often given as first-line treatments to elderly patients with neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with dementia. It also evaluated patterns of medication usage over time in the year preceding and three years after the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued a black box warning for antipsychotic usage.
A retrospective cohort consisted of 19,517 Veterans Affairs patients with diagnosed dementia and a new outpatient start with an antipsychotic agent (haloperidol, olanzapine, quetiapine, or risperidone) or valproic acid and its derivatives between May 1, 2004, and September 30, 2008. Patient and facility characteristics were examined for their association with the new starts of these medications.
Trends in the rate of fills for psychotropic medications varied, with yearly increases in the use of quetiapine, haloperidol, and valproic acid and decreasing use of olanzapine and risperidone. Predictors of haloperidol use included a new start in nonpsychiatric settings, prior benzodiazepine use, and any prior-year hospitalization. Anxiety disorder and major depression were predictive of not receiving haloperidol. Parkinson's disease was predictive of quetiapine use, whereas bipolar disorder was predictive of valproic acid use. Older age was predictive of use of antipsychotics rather than valproic acid. Urban facilities were less likely to use olanzapine, and significant regional variations were seen.
Important patient and facility characteristics were associated with initiating different psychotropic agents among elderly dementia patients. In addition, the rate of use and the factors predictive of use varied across the study years.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years, concerns about the use of antipsychotic medications in dementia have grown. There is limited data on mortality risk of atypical antipsychotics for other psychiatric disorders of later life such as bipolar disorder. Data were derived from the national Department of Veterans Affairs registries for older patients with bipolar disorder (≥65 years) with a new start of an atypical antipsychotic (risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine) or valproic acid and derivatives during fiscal years 2001-2008. Six-month mortality rates were compared for individual drug groups. The sample included 4717 patients. The risperidone cohort had the highest mortality rate (11.8 per 100 person-years) with the quetiapine and valproic acid cohorts having the lowest (5.3 and 4.6 per 100 person-years, respectively). Various methods to adjust for baseline differences including propensity models showed similar patterns. Among older patients with bipolar disorder, there may be differences in mortality risks among individual antipsychotic agents.Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 03/2012; 25(1):29-36. DOI:10.1177/0891988712436687 · 1.63 Impact Factor
Article: Response to Nasrallah LetterAmerican Journal of Psychiatry 06/2012; 169(6):664-5. DOI:10.1176/appi.ajp.2012.12020279r · 13.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differences between atypical antipsychotics in their potential to cause parkinsonism and risk factors for antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism are not well established. There is a particular paucity of information on this in real-world use of these drugs, outside of clinical trial settings. We compared the incidence of parkinsonism after new treatment with risperidone, olanzapine, or quetiapine in patients with dementia and examined the effects of dose and sex on the risk of parkinsonism. Administrative data from Ontario, Canada between 2002 and 2010 were used to compare the incidence of a diagnostic code for parkinsonism or prescription of an anti-Parkinson medication among patients with dementia who were newly prescribed quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone. From 15,939 person-years of observation, 421 patients developed parkinsonism. Using low-dose risperidone as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios for developing parkinsonism were 0.49 (95% CI, 0.07-3.53) for low-dose olanzapine and 1.18 (95% CI, 0.84-1.66) for low-dose quetiapine. Comparing across drugs within the most commonly prescribed dose ranges, the incidence of parkinsonism was higher in the medium-dose olanzapine group compared with the low-dose risperidone group (hazard ratio 1.66; 95% CI 23-2.23). The adjusted hazard ratio for developing parkinsonism for men (compared with women) was 2.29 (95% CI, 1.88- 2.79). We found no evidence that the risk of drug-induced parkinsonism in older adults with dementia was different among quetiapine, olanzapine, or risperidone, challenging the notion that the drugs differed in their propensity to cause parkinsonism. Men appeared to be at higher risk of parkinsonism as a adverse event than women.12/2012; 10(6):381-389.e3. DOI:10.1016/j.amjopharm.2012.11.001