Article

Ischiofemoral impingement.

The Richard Villar Practice, Spire Cambridge Lea Hospital, 30 New Road, Impington, Cambridge CB24 9EL, UK.
The Bone & Joint Journal (Impact Factor: 2.8). 10/2011; 93(10):1300-2. DOI: 10.1302/0301-620X.93B10.26714
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Femoroacetabular impingement is a well-documented cause of hip pain. There is, however, increasing evidence for the presence of a previously unrecognised impingement-type condition around the hip - ischiofemoral impingement. This is caused by abnormal contact between the lesser trochanter of the femur and the ischium, and presents as atypical groin and/or posterior buttock pain. The symptoms are gradual in onset and may be similar to those of iliopsoas tendonitis, hamstring injury or bursitis. The presence of ischiofemoral impingement may be indicated by pain caused by a combination of hip extension, adduction and external rotation. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates inflammation and oedema in the ischiofemoral space and quadratus femoris, and is distinct from an acute tear. To date this has only appeared in the specialist orthopaedic literature as a problem that has developed after total hip replacement, not in the unreplaced joint.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Extraarticular femoroacetabular impinge-ment (FAI) can result in symptomatic hip pain, but preoperative demographic, radiographic, and physical examination findings have not been well characterized. Questions/purposes The purposes of this study were to (1) define the demographic characteristics of patients with symptomatic extraarticular FAI; and (2) identify relevant radiographic and physical examination findings that are associated with intraoperative locations of extraarticular FAI. Methods For purposes of this study, we defined extraar-ticular FAI as abnormal contact between the extraarticular regions of the proximal femur (greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, extracapsular femoral neck) and the ilium or ischium. The diagnosis was suspected preoperatively, but it was confirmed at the time of surgery by direct visualization of extraarticular impingement after surgical hip disloca-tion. A prospective single-center hip preservation registry was used to retrospectively characterize patients presenting between October 2010 and November 2013 with symp-tomatic hip pain and intraoperative findings of extraarticular FAI (N = 75 patients, 86 hips). Detailed demographic data were recorded. Radiographs, CT, and MRI scans were reviewed for all patients by two of the authors (BFR, ELS). Outcome instruments including modified Harris hip score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score (HOS), and International Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT-33) were assessed preoperatively. A comparison group of all patients (N = 1690 patients, 1989 hips) undergoing sur-gery for intraarticular FAI over the study period were included for demographic comparisons. Cases with extra-articular FAI accounted for 4% (75 of 1765 patients) of our cohort over the study time period. Results Patients with extraarticular FAI were more likely to be younger (mean ± SD, 24 ± 7 years versus 30 ± 11 years; difference [95% confidence interval {CI}], À7 [À9 to À4]; p \ 0.001), female (85% versus 49%; odds ratio [95% CI], 6 [3 to 12]; p \ 0.001), to have undergone prior hip surgery (44% versus 10%; odds ratio [95% CI], 9 (6 to 15); p \ 0.001), and have lower preoperative outcome scores after adjustment for age, sex, and revision status (mHHS 55 ± 15 versus 63 ± 15; adjusted difference [95% CI], À4 (À8 to À1); p = 0.017; HOS ADL 64 ± 19 versus 73 ± 18; adjusted One of the authors certifies that he (ELS) may receive payments or benefits, during the study period less than USD 10,000 from Pivot Medical (Sunnyvale, CA, USA). All ICMJE Conflict of Interest Forms for authors and Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1 editors and board members are on file with the publication and can be viewed on request. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 1 neither advocates nor endorses the use of any treatment, drug, or device. Readers are encouraged to always seek additional information, including FDA-approval status, of any drug or device prior to clinical use. Each author certifies that his or her institution approved the human protocol for this investigation, that all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research, and that informed consent for participation in the study was obtained. A Publication of The Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons® difference [95% CI], À7 (À11 to À3); p = 0.002) than patients undergoing surgery for intraarticular FAI. Within the extraarticular FAI group, preoperative femoral version on CT was different among patients with anterior versus posterior extraarticular impingement (median [first quartile, third quar-tile], 8° [2, 18] versus 21° [20, 30], respectively; p = 0.005) and anterior versus complex extraarticular impingement (median [first quartile, third quartile], 8° [2, 18] versus 20° [10, 30], respectively; p = 0.007]. Preoperative external rotation in extension was increased in patients with anterior versus com-plex extraarticular FAI (median [first quartile, third quartile], 70° [55, 75] versus 40° [20, 60]; p \ 0.001). Conclusions Extraarticular FAI is an uncommon source of impingement symptoms. We suspect the diagnosis often is missed, because many of these patients had prior hip surgery before the procedure that diagnosed the extraar-ticular impingement source. This diagnosis seems more common in younger, female patients. Radiographic and physical examination findings correspond to locations of intraoperative extraarticular impingement. Future studies will need to determine whether surgical treatment of extraarticular impingement pathology improves pain and function in this subset of patients. Level of Evidence Level III, therapeutic study.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE. MRI findings of ischiofemoral impingement (IFI) have been described, but there is little evidence for treatment with ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection of the quadratus femoris muscle as a treatment of IFI syndrome and to correlate the MRI findings with injection outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The medical records of 61 consecutively registered subjects who underwent bony pelvis MRI in which either IFI or quadratus femoris edema was described in the radiology report were retrospectively reviewed. Subjects with MRI findings of IFI and clinical confirmation of pain that could be attributed to IFI were included and divided into injection and control groups based on clinical management. Control subjects had MRI findings and clinical symptoms suggestive of IFI but underwent conservative therapy rather than injection. The control patients had adequate follow-up and clinical documentation to determine their response to treatment. Quadratus femoris muscle edema, fat atrophy, and hamstring tendinopathy were graded from none to severe (grades 0-3). The ischiofemoral and quadratus femoris spaces were also measured. Clinical presentation was classified as typical, somewhat typical, or not typical of IFI. Injection effectiveness was determined by reported pain reduction assessed before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after the procedure with a standard 10-cm visual analog scale. Response to treatment was classified as good (reduction in pain level > 2), mild or partial (reduced by 1 or 2), or no improvement. For patients who did not return their 2-week postinjection pain surveys, injection effectiveness was determined by qualitative assessments found in their clinical notes. A Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test was used to compare effectiveness of injection between groups (p < 0.05). The Fisher exact test was used to evaluate for associations between each MRI finding and injection outcome. RESULTS. Of the 61 patients, 20 patients had both MRI findings and clinical confirmation of pain related to IFI. These 20 patients were included in the study. Fifteen ultrasound-guided injections were performed in seven patients, and these seven patients were included in the injection group (mean age, 47 years; range, 15-66 years); 13 patients were included in the control group (mean age, 42 years; range, 16-62 years). All seven patients in the injection group and 12 of the 13 patients in the control group were women. In the injection group, the mean width of the ischiofemoral space was 12 mm (range, 7-22 mm), and the mean width of the quadratus femoris space was 9 mm (range, 5-16 mm). The mean edema grade was 1.4 (range, 0-3); mean atrophy grade, 1.4 (range, 0-3); and mean hamstring tendinopathy grade, 1 (range, 0-2). In the control group, the mean width of the ischiofemoral space was 9 mm (range, 6-17 mm); mean quadratus femoris space width, 7 mm (range, 3-15 mm); mean edema grade, 1.9 (range, 1-3); mean atrophy grade, 1.2 (range, 0-3); and mean hamstring tendinopathy grade, 1.2 (range, 0-3). No statistical difference was seen between the two groups before treatment. Pain reduction after injection over the 2-week period was statistically significant with a mean reduction of 1.7 (range, 1-2) for the injection group and 0.8 (range, 0-2) for the control group (p < 0.01). Eleven of 15 (73%) of the injections provided good relief, and four of 15 (27%) provided mild relief. None of the 15 injections provided no relief. In the control group, four of 14 (29%) subjects had good relief, three of 14 (21%) had mild relief, and seven of 14 (50%) had no relief (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION. Ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection of the quadratus femoris muscle shows promise as an effective treatment of IFI syndrome. However, larger longitudinal studies are needed to help establish the role of ultrasound-guided injection in the workup and care of patients presenting with both MRI findings and clinical findings of IFI.
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