Article

Effects of parental soothing behavior on stress levels of 2-8 year old children during voiding cystourethrograms by phase of procedure.

Department of Economic Psychology, Educational Psychology and Evaluation, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings (Impact Factor: 1.49). 12/2011; 18(4):400-9. DOI:10.1007/s10880-011-9260-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Using the example of a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), a painful radiological procedure, this study investigated whether parental soothing behavior (reassuring comments like "it's almost over" or "You're O.K." and soothing by "sh, sh") in one phase of the procedure influenced the child's distress in the following phase. The sample was comprised of 68 2-8 year-old children and the accompanying parent(s). Child and parental behavior during the VCUG was coded using a standardized rating scale (CAMPIS-R). Parental reassurance during the anticipatory phase significantly increased the child's distress of the following phase, while parental "sh, sh" significantly reduced it. Both parental behaviors showed no significant effect on the child's distress of the following phase when applied during the procedure itself. Results underline the importance of differentiating between anticipatory and procedural phases of the VCUG. Counselling methods for parents on more appropriate strategies to assist their children during procedural phases of the VCUG are necessary.

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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a common imaging test in pediatric urology that can be associated with anxiety in the child and parent. We hypothesized that education by mailed brochure would decrease pre-procedure parental anxiety. METHODS: Families of children scheduled for VCUG were randomized into an experimental group that was mailed an educational brochure about the VCUG and a control group. Immediately prior to the procedure, parental anxiety was assessed with the self-administered State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The parent repeated the STAI at home after the VCUG and answered brief questions about educational resources used to prepare for the VUCG. RESULTS: We enrolled 105 families (47 experimental, 58 control). Parental state anxiety was higher before the procedure than after the procedure (p < 0.001). Younger parents had greater pre-procedure state anxiety (p = 0.007). Contrary to our expectations, pre-procedure state anxiety did not differ between control and experimental groups. However, parents in the experimental group demonstrated less anxiety with some individual items in the questionnaire. CONCLUSION: An educational brochure mailed to families prior to VCUG did not decrease pre-procedure parental state anxiety. However, the educational brochure can ensure accurate dissemination of information to help families prepare for this potentially distressing procedure.
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