Effects of Parental Soothing Behavior on Stress Levels of 2–8 Year Old Children During Voiding Cystourethrograms by Phase of Procedure
Department of Economic Psychology, Educational Psychology and Evaluation, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings (Impact Factor: 1.49). 12/2011; 18(4):400-9. DOI: 10.1007/s10880-011-9260-5
Using the example of a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), a painful radiological procedure, this study investigated whether parental soothing behavior (reassuring comments like "it's almost over" or "You're O.K." and soothing by "sh, sh") in one phase of the procedure influenced the child's distress in the following phase. The sample was comprised of 68 2-8 year-old children and the accompanying parent(s). Child and parental behavior during the VCUG was coded using a standardized rating scale (CAMPIS-R). Parental reassurance during the anticipatory phase significantly increased the child's distress of the following phase, while parental "sh, sh" significantly reduced it. Both parental behaviors showed no significant effect on the child's distress of the following phase when applied during the procedure itself. Results underline the importance of differentiating between anticipatory and procedural phases of the VCUG. Counselling methods for parents on more appropriate strategies to assist their children during procedural phases of the VCUG are necessary.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: The voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) is a common imaging test in pediatric urology that can be associated with anxiety in the child and parent. We hypothesized that education by mailed brochure would decrease pre-procedure parental anxiety. Methods: Families of children scheduled for VCUG were randomized into an experimental group that was mailed an educational brochure about the VCUG and a control group. Immediately prior to the procedure, parental anxiety was assessed with the self-administered State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The parent repeated the STAI at home after the VCUG and answered brief questions about educational resources used to prepare for the VUCG. Results: We enrolled 105 families (47 experimental, 58 control). Parental state anxiety was higher before the procedure than after the procedure (p < 0.001). Younger parents had greater pre-procedure state anxiety (p = 0.007). Contrary to our expectations, pre-procedure state anxiety did not differ between control and experimental groups. However, parents in the experimental group demonstrated less anxiety with some individual items in the questionnaire. Conclusion: An educational brochure mailed to families prior to VCUG did not decrease pre-procedure parental state anxiety. However, the educational brochure can ensure accurate dissemination of information to help families prepare for this potentially distressing procedure.Journal of pediatric urology 06/2013; 9(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jpurol.2013.05.015 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Young children of pre-school age may find a minimal intervention (fluoride varnish application) difficult to tolerate. To determine the significant predictors for refusing a fluoride varnish application from child, parental and nurse behaviour factors. Data included videos from 238 children (52% female, aged 3-5 years) receiving a fluoride varnish application in a Scottish nursery school setting. The St Andrews Behavioural Interaction Scheme (SABICS) was used for video coding and retrieved child refusal status, initial anxious behaviour, and nurse behaviour. A parental survey collected parent's dental anxiety [Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS)] and the child's home behaviour [Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)]. Child demographics, dental status, and previous varnish application experience were recorded. Multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to predict child refusal of the varnish application. The response rate was 79%. Twelve children refused. The significant predictors of varnish refusal included initial anxious child behaviour (β = 5.14, P = 0.001), no previous varnish application (β = -3.89, P = 0.04), and no nurse praise (β = -1.06, P = 0.02). Information giving (P = 0.06) and reassurance (P = 0.08) were borderline significant. Initial anxiety behaviour, previous varnish experience, and not using praise by the nursing staff predicted fluoride varnish application refusal.International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 09/2013; 24(4). DOI:10.1111/ipd.12068 · 1.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We evaluated whether stress levels in children and parents during radiological evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection are really lower using the top-down approach, where (99m)technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy is used initially, than the bottom-up approach, where voiding cystourethrography is initially performed and repeated examinations are easier for all. We prospectively evaluated 120 children 3 to 8 years old. Pain ratings were obtained using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised, and conversation during the procedure was evaluated using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale- Revised by 2 independent observers. To evaluate parental anxiety, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form was also completed. Following a documented febrile urinary tract infection children were randomized to the top-down or bottom-up group. A third group of 44 children undergoing repeat voiding cystourethrography and their parents were also evaluated. Child ratings of pain using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised were not significantly different between the top-down group following (99m)technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (2.99 on a scale of 10) and the bottom-up group following voiding cystourethrography (3.21). Also the Faces Pain Scale-Revised was not significantly different in the repeat voiding cystourethrography group (3.35). On the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised there was negative correlation between child coping and child distress, as well as rate of child distress and adult coping promoting behavior. Parental state anxiety scores were significantly less in the top-down and repeat voiding cystourethrography groups than in the bottom-up group. Although the top-down approach and repeat voiding cystourethrography cause less anxiety for caregivers, these values do not correlate to pain scale in children. This finding might be due to lack of appropriate evaluation tools of pediatric pain and anxiety. However, the theory that the top-down approach is less invasive, and thus less stressful, requires further research. The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised data indicate that influences in adult-child interaction are bidirectional. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The Journal of Urology 10/2014; 193(3). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.10.044 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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