Gender differences in UV-induced inflammation and immunosuppression in mice reveal male unresponsiveness to UVA radiation.
ABSTRACT Immunosuppression attributed mainly to the UVB (290-320 nm) waveband is a prerequisite for skin cancer development in mice and humans. The contribution of UVA (320-400 nm) is controversial, but in mice UVA irradiation has been found to antagonise immunosuppression by UVB. In other studies of photoimmune regulation, protection mediated via oestrogen receptor-β signalling was identified as a normal endogenous defence in mice, and was shown to depend on UVA irradiation. A gender bias in photoimmune responsiveness was thus suggested, and is tested in this study by comparing the UV-induced inflammatory and immune responses in male and female hairless mice. We report that male mice, which show greater skin thickness than females, developed a less intense but slower resolving sunburn inflammatory oedema, correlated with reduced epidermal expression of pro-inflammatory IL-6 than females following solar simulated UV (SSUV, 290-400 nm) exposure. On the other hand, the contact hypersensitivity reaction (CHS) was more severely suppressed by SSUV in males, correlated with increased epidermal expression of immunosuppressive IL-10. Exposure to the UVB waveband alone, or to cis-urocanic acid, suppressed CHS equally in males and females. However, whereas UVA irradiation induced immunoprotection against either UVB or cis-urocanic acid in females, this protection was significantly reduced or abrogated in males. The results indicate that males are compromised by a relative unresponsiveness to the photoimmune protective effects of UVA, alone or as a component of SSUV. This could explain the known gender bias in skin cancer development in both mice and humans.
Article: Effective treatment of squamous cell carcinomas with ingenol mebutate gel in immunologically intact SKH1 mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ingenol mebutate has recently been approved by the Federal Drug Administration (USA) as a topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Herein, we describe the efficacy of ingenol mebutate for the topical treatment of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using a wild-type mouse model (SKH1) and the UV-induced mouse SCC cell line, T7. Daily treatment for 2 days with 0.25 % ingenol mebutate gel produced a cure rate of 70 %, with 0 % for placebo gel. Electron microscopy revealed swelling of cancer cell mitochondria within 1 h, with disruption of the inner mitochondrial membranes evident at 6 h post treatment. Primary necrosis of cancer cells was clearly evident by 24 h. Treatment was associated with local haemorrhage and a prodigious neutrophil infiltrate, with anti-T7 antibodies also detected. This is the first report of the successful treatment of SCC tumours with ingenol mebutate gel in wild-type mice, and supports the view that ingenol mebutate induces primary necrosis and activates the immune system.Archives for Dermatological Research 08/2012; · 2.28 Impact Factor
Article: Acute erythemal ultraviolet radiation causes systemic immunosuppression in the absence of increased 25-hydroxyvitamin d(3) levels in male mice.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is synthesised by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of skin and is hypothesized to be a direct mediator of the immunosuppression that occurs following UV radiation (UVR) exposure. Both UVR and vitamin D drive immune responses towards tolerance by ultimately increasing the suppressive activities of regulatory T cells. To examine a role for UVR-induced vitamin D, vitamin D(3)-deficient mice were established by dietary vitamin D(3) restriction. In comparison to vitamin D(3)-replete mice, vitamin D(3)-deficient mice had significantly reduced serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25(OH)D(3), <20 nmol.L(-1)) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3), <20 pmol.L(-1)). Following either acute erythemal UVR, or chronic sub-erythemal UVR (8 exposures over 4 weeks) treatment, serum 25(OH)D(3) levels significantly increased in vitamin D(3)-deficient female but not male mice. To determine if UVR-induced vitamin D was a mediator of UVR-induced systemic immunosuppression, responses were measured in mice that were able (female) or unable (male) to increase systemic levels of 25(OH)D(3) after UVR. Erythemal UVR (≥4 kJ/m(2)) suppressed contact hypersensitivity responses (T helper type-1 or -17), aspects of allergic airway disease (T helper type-2) and also the in vivo priming capacity of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells to a similar degree in female and male vitamin D(3)-deficient mice. Thus, in male mice, UVR-induced 25(OH)D(3) is not essential for mediating the immunosuppressive effects of erythemal UVR.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e46006. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies.Frontiers in genetics. 01/2012; 3:268.