Absence of APOL1 Risk Variants Protects against HIV-Associated Nephropathy in the Ethiopian Population
ABSTRACT Susceptibility to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among HIV-infected Americans of African ancestral heritage has been attributed to APOL1 genetic variation. We determined the frequency of the APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants together with the prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry to determine whether the kidney disease genetic risk is PanAfrican or restricted to West Africa, and can explain the previously reported low risk of HIVAN among Ethiopians.
We studied a cohort of 338 HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry treated in one Israeli and one Ethiopian center. We sought clinical evidence for HIVAN (serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl or proteinuria >30 mg/dl in a spot urine sample). Genetic analyses included the genotyping of the APOL1 G1 and G2 variants, and a panel of 33 genomic ancestry-informative markers. Statistical analysis compared clinical and genetic indices for HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry and overall Ethiopians to those reported for HIV-infected African-Americans, overall African-Americans, West Africans and non-Africans.
Three (0.8%) of 338 HIV-infected patients of Ethiopian ancestry showed clinical criteria compatible with renal impairment. Two of these 3 patients also have severe poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The third nondiabetic patient underwent renal biopsy which ruled out HIVAN. This absence of clinically apparent HIVAN was significantly different from that reported for African-Americans. The APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants were found, respectively, in 0 and 2 (heterozygote state) of the 338 HIV-infected individuals. Global ancestry and the frequencies of the APOL1 G1 and G2 variants are not statistically different from their frequencies in the general Ethiopian population, but are significantly and dramatically lower than those observed among HIV-infected African-Americans, African-Americans and West Africans.
The coinciding absence of HIVAN and the APOL1 risk variants among HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry support a Western rather than Pan-African ancestry risk for ESKD, and can readily explain the lack of HIVAN among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry.
- SourceAvailable from: Macaulay A Onuigbo
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- "Yet, more recently, new experimental and clinical evidence is accumulating to suggest a role for APOL1 variants in the pathogenesis and progression of CKD [71,72,73,74]. In addition, population-based genetic studies have identified many genetic variants of APOL1 that are associated with an increased risk of developing common kidney diseases including focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and HIV-1-associated nephropathy [71,72,73,74,75]. "
ABSTRACT: In the June 2011 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, the BEAM (Bardoxolone Methyl Treatment: Renal Function in CKD/Type 2 Diabetes) trial investigators rekindled new interest and also some controversy regarding the concept of renoprotection and the role of renoprotective agents, when they reported significant increases in the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with an eGFR of 20-45 ml/min/1.73 m(2) of body surface area at enrollment who received the trial drug bardoxolone methyl versus placebo. Unfortunately, subsequent phase IIIb trials failed to show that the drug is a safe alternative renoprotective agent. Current renoprotection paradigms depend wholly and entirely on angiotensin blockade; however, these agents [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] have proved to be imperfect renoprotective agents. In this review, we examine the mechanistic limitations of the various previous randomized controlled trials on CKD renoprotection, including the paucity of veritable, elaborate and systematic assessment methods for the documentation and reporting of individual patient-level, drug-related adverse events. We review the evidence base for the presence of putative, multiple independent and unrelated pathogenetic mechanisms that drive (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD progression. Furthermore, we examine the validity, or lack thereof, of the hyped notion that the blockade of a single molecule (angiotensin II), which can only antagonize the angiotensin cascade, would veritably successfully, consistently and unfailingly deliver adequate and qualitative renoprotection results in (diabetic and non-diabetic) CKD patients. We clearly posit that there is this overarching impetus to arrive at the inference that multiple, disparately diverse and independent pathways, including any veritable combination of the mechanisms that we examine in this review, and many more others yet to be identified, do concurrently and asymmetrically contribute to CKD initiation and propagation to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in our CKD patients. We conclude that current knowledge of CKD initiation and progression to ESRD, the natural history of CKD and the impacts of acute kidney injury on this continuum remain in their infancy and call for more research. Finally, we suggest a new classification scheme for renoprotective agents: (1) the single-pathway blockers that block a single putative pathogenetic pathway involved in CKD progression, as typified by ACE inhibitors and/or ARBs, and (2) the multiple-pathway blockers that are able to block or antagonize the effects of multiple pathogenetic pathways through their ability to simultaneously block, downstream, the effects of several pathways or mechanisms of CKD to ESRD progression and could therefore concurrently interfere with several unrelated upstream pathways or mechanisms. We surmise that maybe the ideal and truly renoprotective agent, clearly a multiple-pathway blocker, is on the horizon. This calls for more research efforts from all.04/2013; 3(1):36-49. DOI:10.1159/000351044
- Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2012; 27(4):1288-91. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfr812 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The APOL1 G1 and G2 genetic variants make a major contribution to the African ancestry risk for a number of common forms of non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We sought to clarify the relationship of APOL1 variants with age of dialysis initiation and dialysis vintage (defined by the time between dialysis initiation and sample collection) in African and Hispanic Americans, diabetic and non-diabetic ESKD. We examined APOL1 genotypes in 995 African and Hispanic American dialysis patients with diabetic and non-diabetic ESKD. The mean age of dialysis initiation for non-diabetic African-American patients with two APOL1 risk alleles was 48.1 years, >9 years earlier than those without APOL1 risk alleles (t-test, P=0.0003). Similar results were found in the non-diabetic Hispanic American cohort, but not in the diabetic cohorts. G1 heterozygotes showed a 5.3-year lower mean age of dialysis initiation (t-test, P=0.0452), but G2 heterozygotes did not show such an effect. At the age of 70, 92% of individuals with two APOL1 risk alleles had already initiated dialysis, compared with 76% of the patients without APOL1 risk alleles. Although two APOL1 risk alleles are also associated with ∼2 years increased in dialysis vintage, further analysis showed that this increase is fully explained by earlier age of dialysis initiation. Two APOL1 risk alleles significantly predict lower age of dialysis initiation and thereby increased dialysis vintage in non-diabetic ESKD African and Hispanic Americans, but not in diabetic ESKD. A single APOL1 G1, but not G2, risk allele also lowers the age of dialysis initiation, apparently consistent with gain of injury or loss of function mechanisms. Hence, APOL1 mutations produce a distinct category of kidney disease that manifests at younger ages in African ancestry populations.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2012; 27(4):1498-505. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfr796 · 3.58 Impact Factor