Absence of APOL1 Risk Variants Protects against HIV-Associated Nephropathy in the Ethiopian Population
ABSTRACT Susceptibility to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among HIV-infected Americans of African ancestral heritage has been attributed to APOL1 genetic variation. We determined the frequency of the APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants together with the prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry to determine whether the kidney disease genetic risk is PanAfrican or restricted to West Africa, and can explain the previously reported low risk of HIVAN among Ethiopians.
We studied a cohort of 338 HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry treated in one Israeli and one Ethiopian center. We sought clinical evidence for HIVAN (serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl or proteinuria >30 mg/dl in a spot urine sample). Genetic analyses included the genotyping of the APOL1 G1 and G2 variants, and a panel of 33 genomic ancestry-informative markers. Statistical analysis compared clinical and genetic indices for HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry and overall Ethiopians to those reported for HIV-infected African-Americans, overall African-Americans, West Africans and non-Africans.
Three (0.8%) of 338 HIV-infected patients of Ethiopian ancestry showed clinical criteria compatible with renal impairment. Two of these 3 patients also have severe poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The third nondiabetic patient underwent renal biopsy which ruled out HIVAN. This absence of clinically apparent HIVAN was significantly different from that reported for African-Americans. The APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants were found, respectively, in 0 and 2 (heterozygote state) of the 338 HIV-infected individuals. Global ancestry and the frequencies of the APOL1 G1 and G2 variants are not statistically different from their frequencies in the general Ethiopian population, but are significantly and dramatically lower than those observed among HIV-infected African-Americans, African-Americans and West Africans.
The coinciding absence of HIVAN and the APOL1 risk variants among HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry support a Western rather than Pan-African ancestry risk for ESKD, and can readily explain the lack of HIVAN among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry.
- SourceAvailable from: Carl LangefeldNephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2012; 27(4):1288-91. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfr812 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The APOL1 G1 and G2 genetic variants make a major contribution to the African ancestry risk for a number of common forms of non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We sought to clarify the relationship of APOL1 variants with age of dialysis initiation and dialysis vintage (defined by the time between dialysis initiation and sample collection) in African and Hispanic Americans, diabetic and non-diabetic ESKD. We examined APOL1 genotypes in 995 African and Hispanic American dialysis patients with diabetic and non-diabetic ESKD. The mean age of dialysis initiation for non-diabetic African-American patients with two APOL1 risk alleles was 48.1 years, >9 years earlier than those without APOL1 risk alleles (t-test, P=0.0003). Similar results were found in the non-diabetic Hispanic American cohort, but not in the diabetic cohorts. G1 heterozygotes showed a 5.3-year lower mean age of dialysis initiation (t-test, P=0.0452), but G2 heterozygotes did not show such an effect. At the age of 70, 92% of individuals with two APOL1 risk alleles had already initiated dialysis, compared with 76% of the patients without APOL1 risk alleles. Although two APOL1 risk alleles are also associated with ∼2 years increased in dialysis vintage, further analysis showed that this increase is fully explained by earlier age of dialysis initiation. Two APOL1 risk alleles significantly predict lower age of dialysis initiation and thereby increased dialysis vintage in non-diabetic ESKD African and Hispanic Americans, but not in diabetic ESKD. A single APOL1 G1, but not G2, risk allele also lowers the age of dialysis initiation, apparently consistent with gain of injury or loss of function mechanisms. Hence, APOL1 mutations produce a distinct category of kidney disease that manifests at younger ages in African ancestry populations.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 02/2012; 27(4):1498-505. DOI:10.1093/ndt/gfr796 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) gene variants are associated with end-stage renal disease in African Americans (AAs). Here we investigate the impact of recipient APOL1 gene distributions on kidney allograft outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 119 AA kidney transplant recipients, and found that 58 (48.7%) carried two APOL1 kidney disease risk variants. Contrary to the association seen in native kidney disease, there is no difference in allograft survival at 5-year posttransplant for recipients with high-risk APOL1 genotypes. Thus, we were able to conclude that APOL1 genotypes do not increase risk of allograft loss after kidney transplantations, and carrying 2 APOL1 risk alleles should not be an impediment to transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 04/2012; 12(7):1924-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.04033.x · 6.19 Impact Factor