Absence of APOL1 Risk Variants Protects against HIV-Associated Nephropathy in the Ethiopian Population
ABSTRACT Susceptibility to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) among HIV-infected Americans of African ancestral heritage has been attributed to APOL1 genetic variation. We determined the frequency of the APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants together with the prevalence of HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry to determine whether the kidney disease genetic risk is PanAfrican or restricted to West Africa, and can explain the previously reported low risk of HIVAN among Ethiopians.
We studied a cohort of 338 HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry treated in one Israeli and one Ethiopian center. We sought clinical evidence for HIVAN (serum creatinine >1.4 mg/dl or proteinuria >30 mg/dl in a spot urine sample). Genetic analyses included the genotyping of the APOL1 G1 and G2 variants, and a panel of 33 genomic ancestry-informative markers. Statistical analysis compared clinical and genetic indices for HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry and overall Ethiopians to those reported for HIV-infected African-Americans, overall African-Americans, West Africans and non-Africans.
Three (0.8%) of 338 HIV-infected patients of Ethiopian ancestry showed clinical criteria compatible with renal impairment. Two of these 3 patients also have severe poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The third nondiabetic patient underwent renal biopsy which ruled out HIVAN. This absence of clinically apparent HIVAN was significantly different from that reported for African-Americans. The APOL1 G1 and G2 risk variants were found, respectively, in 0 and 2 (heterozygote state) of the 338 HIV-infected individuals. Global ancestry and the frequencies of the APOL1 G1 and G2 variants are not statistically different from their frequencies in the general Ethiopian population, but are significantly and dramatically lower than those observed among HIV-infected African-Americans, African-Americans and West Africans.
The coinciding absence of HIVAN and the APOL1 risk variants among HIV-infected individuals of Ethiopian ancestry support a Western rather than Pan-African ancestry risk for ESKD, and can readily explain the lack of HIVAN among individuals of Ethiopian ancestry.
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ABSTRACT: APOL1 kidney disease is a unique case in the field of the genetics of common disease: 2 variants (termed G1 and G2) with high population frequency have been repeatedly associated with nondiabetic CKDs, with very strong effect size (odds ratios 3-29) in populations of sub-Saharan African descent. This review provides an update on the spectrum of APOL1 kidney disease and on the worldwide distribution of these kidney risk variants. We also summarize the proper way to run a recessive analysis on joint and independent effects of APOL1 G1 and G2 kidney risk variants.Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 09/2014; 21(5):426–433. DOI:10.1053/j.ackd.2014.06.005 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: APOL1 variants are associated with HIV-associated nephropathy and FSGS in African Americans. The prevalence of these variants in African populations with CKD in HIV-1 infection has not been investigated. We determined the role of APOL1 variants in 120 patients with HIV-associated nephropathy and CKD and 108 controls from a South-African black population. Patients with CKD were selected on the basis of histology. Genotypes were successfully determined for APOL1 G1 and G2 variants and 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms, including 18 ancestry informative markers, for 116 patients with CKD (96.7%; 38 patients with HIV-associated nephropathy, 39 patients with HIV-positive CKD, and 39 patients with HIV-negative CKD), and 108 controls (100%). Overall, 79% of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy and 2% of population controls carried two risk alleles. In a recessive model, individuals carrying any combination of two APOL1 risk alleles had 89-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval, 18 to 912; P<0.001) of developing HIV-associated nephropathy compared with HIV-positive controls. Population allele frequencies were 7.3% for G1 and 11.1% for G2. APOL1 risk alleles were not significantly associated with other forms of CKD. These results indicate HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy-naïve South-African blacks with two APOL1 risk alleles are at very high risk for developing HIV-associated nephropathy. Further studies are required to determine the effect of APOL1 risk variants on kidney diseases in other regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2015; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2014050469 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV is a highly adaptive, rapidly evolving virus, which is associated with renal diseases including collapsing glomerulopathy-the classic histomorphological form of HIV-associated nephropathy. Other nephropathies related to viral factors include HIV-immune-complex kidney disease and thrombotic microangiopathy. The distribution of HIV-associated kidney diseases has changed over time and continues to vary across geographic regions worldwide. The reasons for this diversity are complex and include a critical role of APOL1 variants and possibly other genetic factors, disparities in access to effective antiviral therapies, and likely other factors that we do not yet fully understand. The mechanisms responsible for HIVAN, including HIV infection of podocytes and tubular epithelial cells, the molecules responsible for HIV entry, and diverse mechanisms of cell injury, have been the focus of much study. Although combined antiretroviral therapy is effective at preventing and reversing HIVAN, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, arterionephrosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy are increasingly common in individuals who have received such therapy for many years. These diseases are associated with metabolic syndrome, obesity and premature ageing. Future directions for HIV-related kidney disease will involve regular screening for drug nephrotoxicity and incipient renal disease, as well as further research into the mechanisms by which chronic inflammation can lead to glomerular disease.Nature Reviews Nephrology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/nrneph.2015.9 · 8.37 Impact Factor