Research Laboratories, Fondazione di Ricerca e Cura "Giovanni Paolo II", Catholic University, Campobasso, Italy and National Reference Centre for Familial Hyperlipoproteinemias and Faculty of Nursing and Health Professional Studies, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia.
"However, results of folate or homocysteine levels in blood in relation to the MTHFR genotype are conflicting. There are several studies showing circulating high levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate in subjects with the TT genotype of C677T (Ma et al., 1999; Vohnout et al., 2011; Zappacosta et al., 2014), along with many other studies indicating a lack of association (Bjelland et al., 2003; Mischoulon et al., 2012; Moorthy et al., 2012; Lok et al., 2014). "
"To protect against selection bias, the selection of eligible pairs was randomized in each center. Between October 2001 and October 2003, 271 pairs in the Abruzzo region in Italy and 263 in southwest London ages 26 to 64 y (mean AE SD, men 48 AE 7, women 45 AE 7) were randomly enrolled  . The participation rates were 85% in Italy and 90% in London. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Folate status has been associated with neural tube defects and cerebrovascular disease. We aimed at evaluating possible differences in folate status in two EU Countries and to assess their possible association with dietary patterns and/or other lifestyles.
Methods and Procedures
In the framework of the EU-funded IMMIDIET Project, 1,068 subjects (534 man-woman pairs), aged 26-64 years, were enrolled in Italy and UK. 1-year-recall Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to evaluate dietary intake. Reduced Rank Regression-analysis was used to derive a dietary pattern better describing high dietary folate intake.
11.3% of the Italians and 45.1% of the British exceeded the optimal dietary folate intake of 400μg/day (Recommended Dietary Allowance). 66.7% and 22.1% of Italian and UK women, respectively, all at childbearing age, had folate serum levels lower than 6.62ng/ml (P=0.01). The percentage of total variance of dietary folate intake explained by food group consumption was 14.2% and 16.3% in Italy and UK, respectively. Reduced Rank Regression-analysis indicated a healthy pattern which was positively associated with folate serum levels in both Countries (for all β-coef>0, P<0.001):100μg/day increase in dietary folate intake was associated with 13.8% and 10.5% increase in folate serum levels in the Italian and English population, respectively (for 100μg/day increase eβ-coef=1.138 and 1.105, P<0.001). Smoking habit was negatively but physical activity positively associated with folate serum levels (P<0.05).
An inadequate dietary folate intake and subsequent serum levels were observed in Italian subjects. High consumption of food sources of folate was positively associated with folate serum levels, explaining a good proportion of its variability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study enrolled 251 diabetic patients, including 101 with neuropathy and 150 without neuropathy. Of the 150 patients, 100 had no complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to identify methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants. Plasma homocysteine levels were also measured. Homocysteine levels and the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia were significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with diabetic patients without neuropathy (P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis with neuropathy as the dependent variable, the frequency of C677T in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase was significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with patients without diabetic complications. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy carrying the 677T allele and low folic acid levels. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes. The C677T polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and low folic acid levels may be risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes.
Neural Regeneration Research 10/2012; 7(30):2384-91. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.30.009 · 0.22 Impact Factor
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