Determination of Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes in Pruritus Patients in Saudi Arabia
Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University , Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers (Impact Factor: 1.46). 10/2011; 16(1):46-9. DOI: 10.1089/gtmb.2011.0064
The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes in 56 pruritus patients and 50 healthy blood donors on the basis of clinical and laboratory investigations. Both demographic and clinical data were collected from each subject after obtaining informed consent and approval from an ethics committee. Ten milliliters of venous blood was collected from fasting patients (8-10 h) and serum was used for aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase tests, anti-HCV antibody testing, HCV-RNA polymerase chain reaction screening, and genotyping analysis. HCV was found to be significantly predominant over HBV infection among the pruritus patients (p<0.001). Twelve pruritus patients (21.42%) were positive for anti-HCV antibodies and nine of them were confirmed positive for HCV RNA presence. Of the two major genotypes revealed, genotype 4 was found to be significantly predominant over the mixed genotype, that is, 4a/c+3a (p<0.001). Subtyping results showed that a significant majority of the type 4 were of the HCV subtype 4a (five patients), followed by 4c (two patients) and 4b genotypes (one patient) and mixed genotype 4a/c+3a (one patient). Results of this prospective study indicated the significant association between pruritus and HCV infection. HCV genotype 4 is the most predominant genotype among the pruritus patients and warrants larger studies in different ethnicities to find the molecular association between HCV genetic variants and pruritus.
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ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and to determine the HCV genotypes in urticaria patients of Saudi Arabia. After thorough clinical examination by a consultant dermatologist, urticaria patients and individual healthy controls were enrolled. Venous blood collected from subjects was analyzed for LFT (aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], albumin, and bilirubin), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HCV antibodies--HCV-RNA-PCR screening and genotyping. Upon enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening for HCV infection, 5/70 (7.1%) urticaria patients and none among the controls tested positive for the presence of anti-HCV antibodies (p=0.005). Genotyping analysis revealed that HCV belongs to types 3 and 4 with subtypes 3a, 4a, and 4c. No significant variations were seen in the mean serum levels of ALT, AST, albumin, and bilirubin between the patients based on their HCV sero-positivity status. This prospective study indicated that HCV infection plays a significant role in urticaria. However, larger studies in different ethnicities could ascertain the association between different HCV genetic variants and the urticaria.Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers 07/2012; 16(8):964-7. DOI:10.1089/gtmb.2012.0014 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has endured several major events of infection parenteral transmission. Recent work has established the utility of using hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a proxy biomarker for assessing the epidemic potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parenteral transmission. In this review, we use data on the prevalence of HCV infection antibody (seroprevalence) among general population and high risk population groups to assess the potential for HIV parenteral transmission in MENA. Relatively low prevalence of HCV infection in the general population groups was reported in most MENA countries indicating that parenteral HIV transmission at endemic levels does not appear to be a cause for concern. Nonetheless, there could be opportunities for localized HIV outbreaks and transmission of other blood-borne infections in some settings such as healthcare facilities. Though there have been steady improvements in safety measures related to parenteral modes of transmission in the region, these improvements have not been uniform across all countries. More precautions, including infection control training programs, surveillance systems for nosocomial infections and wider coverage and evaluation of hepatitis B virus immunization programs need to be implemented to avoid the unnecessary spread of HIV, HCV, and other blood-borne pathogens along the parenteral modes of transmission.World Journal of Gastroenterology 09/2014; 20(36):12734-12752. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i36.12734 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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