Mutagenesis of surfactant protein D informed by evolution and x-ray crystallography enhances defenses against influenza A virus in vivo.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 09/2011; 286(47):40681-92. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.300673
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The recognition of influenza A virus (IAV) by surfactant protein D (SP-D) is mediated by interactions between the SP-D carbohydrate recognition domains (CRD) and glycans displayed on envelope glycoproteins. Although native human SP-D shows potent antiviral and aggregating activity, trimeric recombinant neck+CRDs (NCRDs) show little or no capacity to influence IAV infection. A mutant trimeric NCRD, D325A/R343V, showed marked hemagglutination inhibition and viral neutralization, with viral aggregation and aggregation-dependent viral uptake by neutrophils. D325A/R343V exhibited glucose-sensitive binding to Phil82 hemagglutinin trimer (HA) by surface plasmon resonance. By contrast, there was very low binding to the HA trimer from another virus (PR8) that lacks glycans on the HA head. Mass spectrometry demonstrated the presence of high mannose glycans on the Phil82 HA at positions known to contribute to IAV binding. Molecular modeling predicted an enhanced capacity for bridging interactions between HA glycans and D325A/R343V. Finally, the trimeric D325A/R343V NCRD decreased morbidity and increased viral clearance in a murine model of IAV infection using a reassortant A/WSN/33 virus with a more heavily glycosylated HA. The combined data support a model in which altered binding by a truncated mutant SP-D to IAV HA glycans facilitates viral aggregation, leading to significant viral neutralization in vitro and in vivo. These studies demonstrate the potential utility of homology modeling and protein structure analysis for engineering effective collectin antivirals as in vivo therapeutics.

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    ABSTRACT: We recently reported that a trimeric neck and carbohydrate recognition domain (NCRD) fragment of human surfactant protein D (SP-D), a host defense lectin, with combinatorial substitutions at the 325 and 343 positions (D325A+R343V) exhibits markedly increased antiviral activity for seasonal strains of influenza A virus (IAV). The NCRD binds to glycan rich viral envelope proteins including the hemagglutinin (HA). We now show that replacement of D325 with serine to create D325S+R343V provided equal or, for one viral strain, increased neutralizing activity compared with D325A+R343V. The pandemic H1N1 strains of 1918 and 2009 have only one N-linked glycan site on the head region of the HA and are resistant to inhibition by native SP-D. In contrast, D325A+R343V and D325S+R343V inhibited Cal09 H1N1 and related strains and reduced uptake of Cal09 by epithelial cells. The activity of the double mutants was significantly greater than that of either single mutant (D325A/S or R343V). D325A+R343V and D325S+R343V also strongly inhibited HA activity, and markedly aggregated, the 1968 pandemic H3N2 strain, Aichi68. D325S+R343V significantly reduced viral loads and mortality of mice infected with Aichi68, whereas wild type SP-D NCRD did not. All known human pandemic strains have at least one glycan attachment on the HA head and our results indicate that they may be susceptible to inhibition by modified host defense lectins.
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    ABSTRACT: Surfactant protein D (SP-D), a mammalian C-type lectin, is the primary innate inhibitor of influenza A virus (IAV) in the lung. Interactions of SP-D with highly branched viral N-linked glycans on hemagglutinin (HA), an abundant IAV envelope protein and critical virulence factor, promote viral aggregation and neutralization through as yet unknown molecular mechanisms. Two truncated human SP-D forms, wild-type (WT) and double mutant D325A+R343V, representing neck and carbohydrate recognition domains are compared in this study. Whereas both WT and D325A+R343V bind to isolated glycosylated HA, WT does not inhibit IAV in neutralization assays; in contrast, D325A+R343V neutralization compares well with that of full-length native SP-D. To elucidate the mechanism for these biochemical observations, we have determined crystal structures of D325A+R343V in the presence and absence of a viral nonamannoside (Man9). On the basis of the D325A+R343V-Man9 structure and other crystallographic data, models of complexes between HA and WT or D325A+R343V were produced and subjected to molecular dynamics. Simulations reveal that whereas WT and D325A+R343V both block the sialic acid receptor site of HA, the D325A+R343V complex is more stable, with stronger binding caused by additional hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with HA residues. Furthermore, the blocking mechanism of HA differs for WT and D325A+R343V because of alternate glycan binding modes. The combined results suggest a mechanism through which the mode of SP-D-HA interaction could significantly influence viral aggregation and neutralization. These studies provide the first atomic-level molecular view of an innate host defense lectin inhibiting its viral glycoprotein target.
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May 31, 2014