Changes in incidence, survival and mortality of prostate cancer in Europe and the United States in the PSA era: additional diagnoses and avoided deaths

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
Annals of Oncology (Impact Factor: 6.58). 09/2011; 23(5):1325-34. DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdr414
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We describe changes in prostate cancer incidence, survival and mortality and the resulting impact in additional diagnoses and avoided deaths in European areas and the United States.
Using data from 12 European cancer registries and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, we describe changes in prostate cancer epidemiology between the beginning of the PSA era (USA: 1985-1989, Europe: 1990-1994) and 2002-2006 among patients aged 40-64, 65-74, and 75+. Additionally, we examine changes in yearly numbers of diagnoses and deaths and variation in male life expectancy.
Incidence and survival, particularly among patients aged <75, increased dramatically, yet both remain (with few exceptions in incidence) lower in Europe than in the United States. Mortality reductions, ongoing since the mid/late 1990 s, were more consistent in the United States, had a distressingly small absolute impact among patients aged 40-64 and the largest absolute impact among those aged 75+. Overall ratios of additional diagnoses/avoided deaths varied between 3.6 and 27.6, suggesting large differences in the actual impact of prostate cancer incidence and mortality changes. Ten years of remaining life expectancy was reached between 68 and 76 years.
Policies reflecting variation in population life expectancy, testing preferences, decision aids and guidelines for surveillance-based management are urgently needed.

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