Exploratory study of proteins in urine of patients with histoplasma antigenuria.
ABSTRACT Disseminated histoplasmosis is an invasive fungal infection that can be fatal in patients with weak immune system. The goal of our exploratory study was to evaluate differences in urinary protein profiles among samples of healthy individuals, patients with proteinuria (PRU), and histoplasma antigenuria (HIS), and to identify physiological pathways associated with the excreted proteins. Urine samples were depleted of abundant proteins, deglycosylated, digested with trypsin, fractionated and analyzed by nano-LC-QTOF. The total number of human proteins identified in the samples was 117, of which 20 and 23 were unique to the samples from patients with PRU and HIS, respectively. Pathway analysis of proteins identified in samples of PRU and HIS patients suggested increased levels of proteins associated with acute response signaling, coagulation system, prothrombin activation, glucocorticoid regulation and the lipid antigen presentation signaling pathway networks. The obtained data provide information on protein expression associated with HIS, and suggest that further more rigorous studies aimed at the identification of proteins associated with proteinuria of different causes are feasible.
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ABSTRACT: Many microfluidic chip-based liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (chip-based LC-MS) systems have been utilized for high throughput analysis in various fields of bioanalytical applications such as proteomic, glycomic, pharmaceutical, and clinical research. This review is an update of a previous review article (Electrophoresis 2012, 33, 635-643) to mainly cover the most recent advancements in chip-based LC-MS for determining small molecules in bioanalysis. Firstly, the different types of microfluidic chip devices for chip-based LC-MS analysis will be discussed. Following the discussion of the recent developments in the chip-based instrumentation, the applications of chip-based LC-MS for determining small molecules, such as glycans, pharmaceutical drugs, drugs of abuse, drug metabolites, and biomarkers in various biological sample matrixes will also be included in this review. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Electrophoresis 10/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
Article: The Future of Fungal Serology[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The incidence of invasive fungal infections continues to grow. Early and rapid diagnosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality. The number of assays available for the detection of fungal antigens in human body fluids are increasing in number and becoming part of the basic diagnostic workup for many fungal infections. Detection of specific antibody has been an important component in the diagnosis of fungal infections. Complement fixation and immunodiffusion continue to be the gold standard for antibody detection but are complex to perform, require extensive expertise, and are mostly performed in reference labs. Newer assays are being developed to reduce turn-around time, but have not been fully evaluated. A challenge for improving serologic assays is to move from crude antigens and polyclonal antibodies to purified and/or recombinant antigens and monoclonal antibodies, while retaining good sensitivity and specificity. Recent developments using lateral flow methodology have provided novel point-of-care antigen assays requiring little technical expertise. Such innovative techniques will help to keep the future of fungal serology bright.Current Fungal Infection Reports 09/2013;