Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women.

Human Nutrition Department, School of Natural Sciences, Universidad Autónomade Querétaro, Querétaro, Mexico.
Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 10/2011; 111(10):1507-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2011.07.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Micronutrient deficiencies have been associated with an increase in fat deposition and body weight; thus, adding them to low-fat milk may facilitate weight loss when accompanied by an energy-restricted diet.
The objective was to evaluate the effect of the intake of low-fat milk and low-fat milk with added micronutrients on anthropometrics, body composition, blood glucose levels, lipids profile, C-reactive protein, and blood pressure of women following an energy-restricted diet.
A 16-week randomized, controlled intervention study. PARTICIPANTS/SETTINGS: One hundred thirty-nine obese women (aged 34±6 years) from five rural communities in Querétaro, Mexico.
Women followed an energy-restricted diet (-500 kcal) and received in addition one of the following treatments: 250 mL of low-fat milk (LFM) three times/day, 250 mL of low-fat milk with micronutrients (LFM+M) three times/day, or a no milk control group (CON). Weight, height, and hip and waist circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 weeks. Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, blood pressure, and blood analysis were done at baseline and at the end of the 16 weeks.
Changes in weight and body composition.
One-factor analysis of variance, adjusted by age, baseline values, and community random effects.
After the 16-week intervention, participants in the LFM+M group lost significantly more weight (-5.1 kg; 95% CI: -6.2 to -4.1) compared with LFM (-3.6 kg; 95% CI: -4.7 to -2.6) and CON (-3.2 kg; 95% CI: -4.3 to -2.2) group members (P=0.035). Body mass index change in the LFM+M group (-2.3; 95% CI: -2.7 to -1.8) was significantly greater than LFM group members (-1.5; 95% CI: -2.0 to -1.1) and CON group members (-1.4; 95% CI: -1.9 to -0.9) (P=0.022). Change in percent body fat among LFM+M group members (-2.7%; 95% CI: -3.2 to -2.1) was significantly higher than LFM group members (-1.8%; 95% CI: -2.3 to -1.3) and CON group members (-1.6%; 95% CI: -2.2 to -1.0) (P=0.019). Change in bone mineral content was significantly higher in LFM group members (29 mg; 95% CI: 15 to 44) and LFM+M group members (27 mg; 95% CI: 13 to 41) compared with CON group members (-2 mg; 95% CI: -17 to -14) (P=0.007). No differences were found between groups in glucose level, blood lipid profile, C-reactive protein level, or blood pressure.
Intake of LFM+M increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to treat obesity, but had no effect on blood lipid levels, glucose levels, C-reactive protein, or blood pressure.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between micronutrient status and obesity, lipids, insulin resistance and chronic inflammation in children. Weight, height, waist circumference and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)) were determined in 197 school-aged children. Lipids, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), zinc, iron and vitamins A, C and E were analyzed in blood. Vitamin C and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with Body Mass Index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and body and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Vitamin A was positively associated with BMI, BMI-for-age, WHR and abdominal fat (p < 0.05). Iron and vitamin E:lipids were negatively associated with insulin (p < 0.05). Vitamins A, C and E and iron were negatively associated with CRP (p < 0.05). Interaction analysis showed that children who were overweight and obese who also had low concentrations of vitamin A had higher CRP and lower triglycerides (p < 0.1), children with low vitamin E had significantly lower glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.1) and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations (p < 0.05), and children with low zinc concentrations had higher insulin resistance compared with children with adequate weight (p < 0.05). In conclusion, low vitamin C concentration and vitamin E:lipids were associated with obesity. Furthermore, low concentrations of zinc, vitamins A and E in children who were overweight and obese were associated with lipids, inflammation and insulin resistance.
    Nutrients 12/2013; 5(12):5012-5030. DOI:10.3390/nu5125012 · 3.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Randomized controlled trials specifically designed to assess inflammation-related outcomes in response to dairy consumption are lacking.
    Journal of Nutrition 11/2014; 144(11):1760-7. DOI:10.3945/jn.114.200576 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dairy products have been thought to have a beneficial role in the metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS constitutes a cluster of risk factors for an increased mortality, including obesity, impaired glucose homeostasis, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidemia. Individuals with MetS are also often in a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state. The objective of this review is to examine recent meta-analyses and clinical studies on the association between dairy products consumption and these MetS risk factors. Findings from studies demonstrate that weight loss related to dairy product intake is due to the combination of an energy-restricted diet with consumption of dairy products. Further, a limited number of studies have shown beneficial effects of dairy consumption on plasma lipids, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis or inflammatory and oxidative stress profiles. Overall, this review article suggests that adults should consume at least 2-3 servings of dairy products per day within a well-balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle for metabolic health. Yet, higher dairy product consumption may have additional beneficial effects, but more well-designed intervention studies are needed to ascertain these effects.
    Maturitas 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.12.007 · 2.86 Impact Factor


Available from
May 20, 2014