Association of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null polymorphisms with the development of cervical lesions: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT An accumulation of evidence suggests that gene-based self-susceptibility may contribute to the development of cancer. Some studies have found that particular polymorphisms of the glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genes are associated with increased risk of cervical lesions, but other studies have had contrary results. The present meta-analysis evaluated the association of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null polymorphisms with the development of cervical lesions. In addition, stratified analyses were performed in an attempt to identify any race-specific effects.
Twenty-one related studies were included in the meta-analysis, comprising glutathione S-transferase M1 data from 1423 patients with cervical lesions and 2415 healthy matched controls, and glutathione S-transferase T1 data from 2081 patients with cervical lesions and 2287 healthy matched controls. The fixed-effect model (Mantel-Haenszel method) and the random-effect (DerSimonian and Laird) model were used to examine the difference in frequency of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 null polymorphisms between pre- and invasive cervical lesions. Subgroup analyses were also conducted to evaluate any race-specific effect on the frequencies of glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in cervical lesions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Heterogeneity was assessed using the heterogeneity metric (I²) and Chi-squared test.
The glutathione S-transferase M1 null polymorphism was associated with increased risk of low-grade intra-epithelial lesions (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.05-1.77), but no increased risk of high-grade intra-epithelial lesions (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.87-1.8) or invasive cervical cancer (OR 1.20, 95% CI 0.99-1.46). The association seemed to be confined to Southeast Asians (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.44-2.71). No significant associations were found for the glutathione S-transferase T1 null polymorphism for any of the populations.
The glutathione S-transferase M1 null polymorphism significantly increases susceptibility to early-stage cervical lesions in Southeast Asians. However, the glutathione S-transferase T1 null polymorphism does not appear to be a risk factor for cervical lesions in any population.
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ABSTRACT: The glutathione S-transferases (GST) represent a major group of detoxification enzymes. All eukaryotic species possess multiple cytosolic and membrane-bound GST isoenzymes, each of which displays distinct catalytic as well as noncatalytic binding properties: the cytosolic enzymes are encoded by at least five distantly related gene families (designated class alpha, mu, pi, sigma, and theta GST), whereas the membrane-bound enzymes, microsomal GST and leukotriene C4 synthetase, are encoded by single genes and both have arisen separately from the soluble GST. Evidence suggests that the level of expression of GST is a crucial factor in determining the sensitivity of cells to a broad spectrum of toxic chemicals. In this article the biochemical functions of GST are described to show how individual isoenzymes contribute to resistance to carcinogens, antitumor drugs, environmental pollutants, and products of oxidative stress. A description of the mechanisms of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of GST isoenzymes is provided to allow identification of factors that may modulate resistance to specific noxious chemicals. The most abundant mammalian GST are the class alpha, mu, and pi enzymes and their regulation has been studied in detail. The biological control of these families is complex as they exhibit sex-, age-, tissue-, species-, and tumor-specific patterns of expression. In addition, GST are regulated by a structurally diverse range of xenobiotics and, to date, at least 100 chemicals have been identified that induce GST; a significant number of these chemical inducers occur naturally and, as they are found as nonnutrient components in vegetables and citrus fruits, it is apparent that humans are likely to be exposed regularly to such compounds. Many inducers, but not all, effect transcriptional activation of GST genes through either the antioxidant-responsive element (ARE), the xenobiotic-responsive element (XRE), the GST P enhancer 1(GPE), or the glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE). Barbiturates may transcriptionally activate GST through a Barbie box element. The involvement of the Ah-receptor, Maf, Nrl, Jun, Fos, and NF-kappa B in GST induction is discussed. Many of the compounds that induce GST are themselves substrates for these enzymes, or are metabolized (by cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases) to compounds that can serve as GST substrates, suggesting that GST induction represents part of an adaptive response mechanism to chemical stress caused by electrophiles. It also appears probable that GST are regulated in vivo by reactive oxygen species (ROS), because not only are some of the most potent inducers capable of generating free radicals by redox-cycling, but H2O2 has been shown to induce GST in plant and mammalian cells: induction of GST by ROS would appear to represent an adaptive response as these enzymes detoxify some of the toxic carbonyl-, peroxide-, and epoxide-containing metabolites produced within the cell by oxidative stress. Class alpha, mu, and pi GST isoenzymes are overexpressed in rat hepatic preneoplastic nodules and the increased levels of these enzymes are believed to contribute to the multidrug-resistant phenotype observed in these lesions. The majority of human tumors and human tumor cell lines express significant amounts of class pi GST. Cell lines selected in vitro for resistance to anticancer drugs frequently overexpress class pi GST, although overexpression of class alpha and mu isoenzymes is also often observed. The mechanisms responsible for overexpression of GST include transcriptional activation, stabilization of either mRNA or protein, and gene amplification. In humans, marked interindividual differences exist in the expression of class alpha, mu, and theta GST. The molecular basis for the variation in class alpha GST is not known. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 02/1995; 30(6):445-600. · 5.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have isolated and characterized a cDNA and partial gene encoding a murine subfamily 1 Theta class glutathione transferase (GST). The cDNA derived from mouse GSTT1 has an open reading frame of 720 bp encoding a peptide of 240 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 27356 Da. The encoded protein shares only 51% deduced amino acid sequence identity with mouse GSTT2, but greater than 80% deduced amino acid sequence identity with rat GSTT1 and human GSTT1. Mouse GSTT1-1 was expressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminal 6x histidine-tagged protein and purified using immobilized-metal affinity chromatography on nickel-agarose. The yield of the purified recombinant protein from E. coli cultures was approx. 14 mg/l. Recombinant mouse GSTT1-1 was catalytically active towards 1, 2-epoxy-3-(p-nitrophenoxy)propane, 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and dichloromethane. Low activity towards 1-menaphthyl sulphate and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was detected, whereas mouse GSTT1-1 was inactive towards ethacrynic acid. Recombinant mouse GSTT1-1 exhibited glutathione peroxidase activity towards cumene hydroperoxide and t-butyl hydroperoxide, but was inactive towards a range of secondary lipid-peroxidation products, such as the trans-alk-2-enals and trans,trans-alka-2,4-dienals. Mouse GSTT1 mRNA is most abundant in mouse liver and kidney, with some expression in intestinal mucosa. Mouse GSTT1 mRNA is induced in liver by phenobarbital, but not by butylated hydroxyanisole, beta-napthoflavone or isosafrole. The structure of mouse GSTT1 is conserved with that of the subfamily 2 Theta class GST genes mouse GSTT2 and rat GSTT2, comprising five exons interrupted by four introns. The mouse GSTT1 gene was found, by in situ hybridization, to be clustered with mouse GSTT2 on chromosome 10 at bands B5-C1. This region is syntenic with the location of the human Theta class GSTs clustered on chromosome 22q11.2. Similarity searches of a mouse-expressed sequence tag database suggest that there may be two additional members of the Theta class that share 70% and 88% protein sequence identity with mouse GSTT1, but less than 55% sequence identity with mouse GSTT2.Biochemical Journal 02/1999; 337 ( Pt 1):141-51. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The past decade of advances in molecular genetic technology has heralded a new era for all evolutionary studies, but especially the science of human evolution. Data on various kinds of DNA variation in human populations have rapidly accumulated. There is increasing recognition of the importance of this variation for medicine and developmental biology and for understanding the history of our species. Haploid markers from mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome have proven invaluable for generating a standard model for evolution of modern humans. Conclusions from earlier research on protein polymorphisms have been generally supported by more sophisticated DNA analysis. Co-evolution of genes with language and some slowly evolving cultural traits, together with the genetic evolution of commensals and parasites that have accompanied modern humans in their expansion from Africa to the other continents, supports and supplements the standard model of genetic evolution. The advances in our understanding of the evolutionary history of humans attests to the advantages of multidisciplinary research.Nature Genetics 04/2003; 33 Suppl:266-75. · 35.21 Impact Factor