"MRI-negative PET-positive" temporal lobe epilepsy: invasive EEG findings, histopathology, and postoperative outcomes.
ABSTRACT The aim of this retrospective study was to analyze invasive EEG findings, histopathology, and postoperative outcomes in patients with MRI-negative, PET-positive temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) (MRI-/PET+TLE) who had undergone epilepsy surgery. We identified 20 patients with MRI-/PET+TLE (8.4% of all patients with TLE who had undergone surgery; 11 men, 9 women). Of the 20 patients, 16 underwent invasive EEG. The temporal pole and hippocampus were involved in the seizure onset zone in 62.5% of the patients. We did not identify a lateral temporal or extratemporal seizure onset in any patient. Of the 20 patients, 17 had follow-up periods >1 year (mean follow-up=3.3 years). At the final follow-up, 70.6% patients were classified as Engel I, 5.8% of patients as Engel II, and 11.8% of patients as Engel III and IV (11.8%). Histopathological evaluation showed no structural pathology in any resected hippocampus in 58% of all evaluated temporal poles. The most common pathology of the temporal pole was focal cortical dysplasia type IA or IB. MRI-/PET+TLE should be delineated from other "nonlesional TLE." The ictal onset in these patients was in each case in the temporal pole or hippocampus, rather than in the lateral temporal neocortex. Standard surgery produced a good postoperative outcome, comparable to that for patients with lesional TLE. Histopathological findings were limited: the most common pathology was focal cortical dysplasia type I.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI)-negative (or 'nonlesional') pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy are the most challenging group undergoing presurgical evaluation. Few large-scale studies have systematically reviewed the pathological substrates underlying MRI-negative epilepsies. In the current study, histopathological specimens were retrospectively reviewed from MRI-negative epilepsy patients (n=95, mean age=30 years, 50% female subjects). Focal cortical dysplasia cases were classified according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and Palmini et al classifications. The most common pathologies found in this MRI-negative cohort included: focal cortical dysplasia (n=43, 45%), gliosis (n=21, 22%), hamartia+gliosis (n=12, 13%), and hippocampal sclerosis (n=9, 9%). The majority of focal cortical dysplasia were ILAE type I (n=37) or Palmini type I (n=39). Seven patients had no identifiable pathological abnormalities. The existence of positive pathology was not significantly associated with age or temporal/extratemporal resection. Follow-up data post surgery was available in 90 patients; 63 (70%) and 57 (63%) attained seizure freedom at 6 and 12 months, respectively. The finding of positive pathology was significantly associated with seizure-free outcome at 6 months (P=0.035), but not at 12 months. In subgroup analysis, the focal cortical dysplasia group was not significantly correlated with seizure-free outcome, as compared with the negative-pathology groups at either 6 or 12 months. Of note, the finding of hippocampal sclerosis had a significant positive correlation with seizure-free outcome when compared with the negative-pathology group (P=0.009 and 0.004 for 6- and 12-month outcome, respectively). Absence of a significant histopathology in the resected surgical specimen did not preclude seizure freedom. In conclusion, our study highlights the heterogeneity of epileptic pathologies in MRI-negative epilepsies, with focal cortical dysplasia being the most common finding. The existence of positive pathology in surgical specimen may be a good indication for short-term good seizure outcome. There is a small subset of cases in which no pathological abnormalities are identified.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 5 April 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.52.Modern Pathology 04/2013; · 5.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Reports on surgical outcomes in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy without histological abnormalities are scarce. METHODS: Retrospective review of data from patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and no histopathological alterations who underwent anterior mesial temporal lobectomy. We analysed the following variables: age, sex, age at seizure onset, age at surgery, time elapsed between diagnosis and the date of the surgery, follow-up time, and classification according to the Engel rating scale. RESULTS: From a database of 256 temporal lobectomies, 21 were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. The average age upon diagnosis of epilepsy was 8.3 years and average age at time of surgery was 28.6 years. The mean time elapsed between diagnosis and surgery was 20.2 years. After a mean follow-up of 6.5 years, 90.5% of the patients showed favourable outcomes (classes i and ii) and 42.9% were seizure-free (class IA). Comparative analysis of the variables revealed that average age at seizure onset was the only statistically significant difference between groups, with age at onset being lower in patients with favourable outcomes. CONCLUSION: Although long-term surgical outcomes were favourable for a large majority of patients, the percentage of seizure-free patients is lower than in patients with lesional epilepsy and comparable to that previously reported in the literature.Neurologia 04/2013;
Article: An Overview of PET Neuroimaging.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Over the past 35 years or so, PET brain imaging has allowed powerful and unique insights into brain function under normal conditions and in disease states. Initially, as PET instrumentation continued to develop, studies were focused on brain perfusion and glucose metabolism. This permitted refinement of brain imaging for important, nononcologic clinical indications. The ability of PET to not only provide spatial localization of metabolic changes but also to accurately and consistently quantify their distribution proved valuable for applications in the clinical setting. Specifically, glucose metabolism brain imaging using (F-18) fluorodeoxyglucose continues to be invaluable for evaluating patients with intractable seizures for identifying seizure foci and operative planning. Cerebral glucose metabolism also contributes to diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases that cause dementia. Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and the several variants of frontotemporal lobar degeneration have differing typical patterns of hypometabolism. In Alzheimer disease, hypometabolism has furthermore been associated with poorer cognitive performance and ensuing cognitive and functional decline. As the field of radiochemistry evolved, novel radioligands including radiolabeled flumazenil, dopamine transporter ligands, nicotine receptor ligands, and others have allowed for further understanding of molecular changes in the brain associated with various diseases. Recently, PET brain imaging reached another milestone with the approval of (F-18) florbetapir imaging by the United States Federal Drug Administration for detection of amyloid plaque accumulation in brain, the major histopathologic hallmark of Alzheimer disease, and efforts have been made to define the clinical role of this imaging agent in the setting of the currently limited treatment options. Hopefully, this represents the first of many new radiopharmaceuticals that would allow improved diagnostic and prognostic information in these and other clinical applications, including Parkinson disease and traumatic brain injury.Seminars in nuclear medicine 11/2013; 43(6):449-461. · 3.96 Impact Factor