Optical Coherence Tomography for live imaging of mammalian development

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030, United States.
Current opinion in genetics & development (Impact Factor: 8.57). 09/2011; 21(5):579-84. DOI: 10.1016/j.gde.2011.09.004
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Understanding the nature and mechanism of congenital defects of the different organ systems in humans has heavily relied on the analysis of the corresponding mutant phenotypes in rodent models. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has recently emerged as a powerful tool to study early embryonic development. This non-invasive optical methodology does not require labeling and allows visualization of embryonic tissues with single cell resolution. Here, we will discuss how OCT can be applied for structural imaging of early mouse and rat embryos in static culture, cardiodynamic and blood flow analysis, and in utero embryonic imaging at later stages of gestation, demonstrating how OCT can be used to assess structural and functional birth defects in mammalian models.

Download full-text


Available from: Mary E Dickinson, Mar 27, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
    • "Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows for noninvasive, fast, single-cell resolution imaging through several millimeters of biological tissue. OCT, with its ability to provide accurate information on structure and dynamics, has been used for studying whole mammalian and avian embryos [1], [2], understanding hemodynamics [3], [4], and capturing 3D+time cardiac images in mammalian and avian embryos [5]–[7]. Frame rates currently achievable with direct, 3D+time OCT are too low to properly capture the dynamics of fast moving cardiovascular structures such as the beating embryonic heart. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Current methods to build dynamic optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes of the beating embryonic heart involve synchronization of 2D+time slice-sequences acquired over separate heartbeats. Temporal registration of these sequences is performed either through gating or post-processing. While synchronization algorithms that exclusively rely on image-intrinsic signals allow forgoing external gating hardware, they are prone to error accumulation, require operator-supervised correction, or lead to non-isotropic resolution. Here, we propose an imagebased, retrospective reconstruction technique that uses two sets of parallel 2D+T slice-sequences, acquired perpendicularly to each other, to yield accurate and automatic reconstructions with isotropic resolution. The method utilizes the similarity of the data at the slice intersections to spatio-temporally register the two sets of slice sequences and fuse them into a high-resolution 4D volume. We characterize our method by using (1) simulated heart phantom datasets and (2) OCT datasets acquired from the beating heart of live cultured E9.5 mouse and E10.5 rat embryos. We demonstrate that while our method requires greater acquisition and reconstruction time compared to methods that use slices from a single direction, it produces more accurate and self-validating reconstructions since each set of reconstructed slices acts as a reference for the slices in the perpendicular set.
    12/2012; 32(3). DOI:10.1109/TMI.2012.2231692
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Optical coherence tomography allows for dynamic, three-dimensional (3D+T) imaging of the heart within animal embryos. However, direct 3D+T imaging frame rates remain insufficient for cardiodynamic analysis. Previously, this limitation has been addressed by reconstructing 3D+T representations of the beating heart based on sets of two-dimensional image sequences (2D+T) acquired sequentially at high frame rate and in fixed (and parallel) planes throughout the heart. These methods either require additional hardware to trigger the acquisition of each 2D+T series to the same phase of the cardiac cycle or accumulate registration errors as the slices are synchronized retrospectively by pairs, without a gating signal. Here, we present a sequential turning acquisition and reconstruction (STAR) method for 3D+T imaging of periodically moving structures, which does not require any additional gating signal and is not prone to registration error accumulation. Similarly to other sequential cardiac imaging methods, multiple fast image series are consecutively acquired for different sections but in between acquisitions, the imaging plane is rotated around the center line instead of shifted along the direction perpendicular to the slices. As the central lines of all image-sequences coincide and represent measurements of the same spatial position, they can be used to accurately synchronize all the slices to a single inherent reference signal. We characterized the accuracy of our method on a simulated dynamic phantom and successfully imaged a beating embryonic rat heart. Potentially, this method can be applied for structural or Doppler imaging approaches with any direct space imaging modality such as computed tomography, ultrasound, or light microscopy.
    Biomedical Optics Express 03/2012; 3(3):650-60. DOI:10.1364/BOE.3.000650 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identifying genes that are important for embryo development is a crucial first step towards understanding their many functions in driving the ordered growth, differentiation and organogenesis of embryos. It can also shed light on the origins of developmental disease and congenital abnormalities. Current international efforts to examine gene function in the mouse provide a unique opportunity to pinpoint genes that are involved in embryogenesis, owing to the emergence of embryonic lethal knockout mutants. Through internationally coordinated efforts, the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) has generated a public resource of mouse knockout strains and, in April 2012, the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), supported by the EU InfraCoMP programme, convened a workshop to discuss developing a phenotyping pipeline for the investigation of embryonic lethal knockout lines. This workshop brought together over 100 scientists, from 13 countries, who are working in the academic and commercial research sectors, including experts and opinion leaders in the fields of embryology, animal imaging, data capture, quality control and annotation, high-throughput mouse production, phenotyping, and reporter gene analysis. This article summarises the outcome of the workshop, including (1) the vital scientific importance of phenotyping embryonic lethal mouse strains for basic and translational research; (2) a common framework to harmonise international efforts within this context; (3) the types of phenotyping that are likely to be most appropriate for systematic use, with a focus on 3D embryo imaging; (4) the importance of centralising data in a standardised form to facilitate data mining; and (5) the development of online tools to allow open access to and dissemination of the phenotyping data.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 03/2013; 6(3). DOI:10.1242/dmm.011833 · 5.54 Impact Factor
Show more