Opioid Use, Misuse, and Abuse in Patients Labeled as Fibromyalgia
ABSTRACT As pain is the cardinal symptom of fibromyalgia, it is logical that treatments directed toward pain relief will be commonly used. Analgesic drug therapy remains the traditional treatment intervention for most chronic pain conditions, with a progressive increased use of opioids in the past 20 years. Concerns about efficacy, risk-benefit ratio, and possible long-term effects of chronic opioid therapy have been raised. There is limited information about opioid treatment in fibromyalgia, with all current guidelines discouraging opioid use.
A chart review of all patients referred to a tertiary care pain center clinic with a referring diagnosis of fibromyalgia was conducted to evaluate use of opioid medications.
We have recorded opioid use by 32% of 457 patients referred to a multidisciplinary fibromyalgia clinic, with over two thirds using strong opioids. Opioid use was more commonly associated with lower education, unemployment, disability payments, current unstable psychiatric disorder, a history of substance abuse, and previous suicide attempts.
We have observed negative health and psychosocial status in patients using opioids and labeled as fibromyalgia. Prolonged use of opioids in fibromyalgia requires evaluation.
SourceAvailable from: Daniel L Bruns[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pain is the most common reason why patients see a physician. Within the USA, it has been estimated that at least 116 million US adults suffer from chronic pain, with an estimated annual national economic cost of $560-635 billion. While pain is in part a sensory process, like sight, touch, or smell, pain is also in part an emotional experience, like depression, anxiety, or anger. Thus, chronic pain is arguably the quintessential biopsychosocial condition. Due to the overwhelming evidence of the biopsychosocial nature of pain and the value of psychological assessments, the majority of chronic pain guidelines recommend a psychological evaluation as an integral part of the diagnostic workup. One biopsychosocial inventory designed for the assessment of patients with chronic pain is the Battery for Health Improvement 2 (BHI 2). The BHI 2 is a standardized psychometric measure, with three validity measures, 16 clinical scales, and a multidimensional assessment of pain. This article will review how the BHI 2 was developed, BHI 2 concepts, validation research, and an overview of the description and interpretation of its scales. Like all measures, the BHI 2 has strengths and weaknesses of which the forensic psychologist should be aware, and particular purposes for which it is best suited. Guided by that knowledge, the BHI 2 can play a useful role in the forensic psychologist's toolbox.Psychological Injury and Law 12/2014; 7(4):335-361. DOI:10.1007/s12207-014-9206-y
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chronic pain has long been considered an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. Less well understood are the factors associated with the increased risk for suicide death within chronic pain populations. The purpose of this review is to examine recent research with regard to rates of and risk factors for suicide mortality in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. We conclude that patients with a number of chronic pain states are at increased risk for suicide death, and that this risk appears to be due, at least in part, to other well-known correlates of pain such as depression and substance use disorders. However, in all likelihood, there are aspects of chronic pain itself that add uniquely to an individual's suicide risk profile. Lastly, we address a theoretical perspective and offer recommendations for clinical practice.Current Pain and Headache Reports 08/2014; 18(8):436. DOI:10.1007/s11916-014-0436-1 · 2.26 Impact Factor