A Case of Perforated Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Presenting as Biloma

Departments of Internal Medicine, Pathology and Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.
The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi 09/2011; 58(3):153-6. DOI: 10.4166/kjg.2011.58.3.153
Source: PubMed


Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is an unusual inflammatory disease of the gallbladder characterized by severe proliferative fibrosis and the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages in areas of destructive inflammation. Its macroscopic appearance may occasionally be confused with gallbladder carcinoma. We present a case of perforated xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis presenting as biloma. An 80-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with a 1-week history of abdominal pain and febrile sensation. Abdominal CT showed a biloma in the subhepatic area. The follow-up CT showed that the biloma increased in size. Therefore, ultrasonography-guided aspiration was performed. The aspirated fluid/serum bilirubin ratio was greater than 5, which was strongly suggestive of bile leakage complicated by perforated cholecystitis. She underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy with cyst aspiration and adhesiolysis. A histological diagnosis of perforated xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis was made.

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Available from: Ok-Jae Lee, Sep 12, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: A biloma is a rare disease characterized by an abnormal intra- or extrahepatic bile collection due to a traumatic or spontaneous rupture of the biliary system. Laboratory findings are nonspecific. The diagnosis is usually suspected on the basis of a typical history (right upper quadrant abdominal pain, chills, fever and recent abdominal trauma or surgery) and is confirmed by detection of typical radiologic features. We report the case of a patient with a history of previous cholecystectomy for lithiasis who presented with clinical symptoms and laboratory data suggestive of acute pancreatitis. Imaging studies also revealed the presence of a chronic and asymptomatic biloma, which could be mistaken for a pseudocyst. The atypical location and ultrasound findings suggested an alternative diagnosis. We therefore reviewed the known literature for bilomas, focusing on the role of ultrasonography, which can reveal some typical aspects, such as location and imaging features. We conclude that ultrasound plays a key role in the assessment of a suspected biloma in patients with appropriate history and clinical features and provides valuable diagnostic clues even in the absence of these.
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