[Dietetic factors associated with prostate cancer: protective effects of Mediterranean diet].
ABSTRACT To review diet risk factors (RF) implied, more or less evidence-based, in the etiopathology of prostate carcinoma (PC), especially those that characterize the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD).
Literature review of PC related diet RF in MedLine, CancerLit, Science Citation Index y Embase. Search profiles were "Dietetic Factors/Nutritional Factors/Mediterranean Diet/Primary Prevention", and "Prostate Cancer".
Diet RF are associated with 35% of cancer mortality and 10-12% of PC mortality. The main diet RF, implied in the development of PC but with a protective effect, which are considered characteristic of MD are: high daily ingestion of vegetarian products (cereals, legumes, dried and fresh fruits, tubers, vegetables..); olive oil as main lipid source; low intake of animal saturated fat, processed red meat, milk and dairy products; regular consumption of small fish; and low alcohol intake (wine with meals). The MD contains many phytoactive compounds (lycopene, lupeol, quercetin, genistein, carnosol, resveratrol, catechins, vitamins..) with PC protective effects.
Diet RF have a role on prostatic carcinogenesis. Further epidemiologic studies with better designs are needed to clarify PC related diet RF. PC risk is reduced in persons on MD compared with those on Western diet. The preventive effect of MD is due to the great number and quality of phytochemicals with antioxidant and antinflammatory properties that contains.